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MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of C28 brassinosteroid biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: superpathway of C28 brassinosteroid biosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Superpathways

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones that regulate the growth and development of plants. The most abundant and widely occurring BRs are C28 steroids, and among them, brassinolide (BL) is the most biologically active one. The biosynthesis pathway of BL was initially elucidated by extensive metabolic studies which suggested parallel-branched pathways, namely the early and late C-6 oxidation pathways ( brassinosteroid biosynthesis I). In all plant species examined to date, the 6-deoxo intermediates are predominant indicating that the late C-6 oxidation branch is the main route. Following the identification and biochemical characterization of CYP P450s involved in BR biosynthesis, an early C-22 oxidation branch ( brassinosteroid biosynthesis II) was proposed which was indicated to be the dominant route leading to BL biosynthesis. More recently, a new shortcut via C-23 hydroxylation following C-22 oxidation was demonstrated ( brassinosteroid biosynthesis II). Additional modifications (for example, lactonization) of the intermediates have also been reported [Katsumata08]. The BL biosynthesis pathway may be best represented as a grid where substantial interconnections between the different proposed routes exist [Ohnishi06, Shimada03].

Subpathways: brassinosteroid biosynthesis II, brassinosteroid biosynthesis I

Created 14-Jul-2010 by Zhang P, TAIR


Katsumata08: Katsumata T, Hasegawa A, Fujiwara T, Komatsu T, Notomi M, Abe H, Natsume M, Kawaide H (2008). "Arabidopsis CYP85A2 catalyzes lactonization reactions in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxy-7-oxalactone brassinosteroids." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72(8);2110-7. PMID: 18685225

Ohnishi06: Ohnishi T, Szatmari AM, Watanabe B, Fujita S, Bancos S, Koncz C, Lafos M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Sakata K, Szekeres M, Mizutani M (2006). "C-23 hydroxylation by Arabidopsis CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 reveals a novel shortcut in brassinosteroid biosynthesis." Plant Cell 18(11);3275-88. PMID: 17138693

Shimada03: Shimada Y, Goda H, Nakamura A, Takatsuto S, Fujioka S, Yoshida S (2003). "Organ-specific expression of brassinosteroid-biosynthetic genes and distribution of endogenous brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 131(1);287-97. PMID: 12529536

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Altmann98: Altmann T (1998). "A tale of dwarfs and drugs: brassinosteroids to the rescue." Trends Genet 1998;14(12);490-5. PMID: 9865154

Asami01: Asami T, Mizutani M, Fujioka S, Goda H, Min YK, Shimada Y, Nakano T, Takatsuto S, Matsuyama T, Nagata N, Sakata K, Yoshida S (2001). "Selective interaction of triazole derivatives with DWF4, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway, correlates with brassinosteroid deficiency in planta." J Biol Chem 276(28);25687-91. PMID: 11319239

Asami03: Asami T, Mizutani M, Shimada Y, Goda H, Kitahata N, Sekimata K, Han SY, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Sakata K, Yoshida S (2003). "Triadimefon, a fungicidal triazole-type P450 inhibitor, induces brassinosteroid deficiency-like phenotypes in plants and binds to DWF4 protein in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway." Biochem J 369(Pt 1);71-6. PMID: 12350224

Bancos02: Bancos S, Nomura T, Sato T, Molnar G, Bishop GJ, Koncz C, Yokota T, Nagy F, Szekeres M (2002). "Regulation of transcript levels of the Arabidopsis cytochrome p450 genes involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis." Plant Physiol 130(1);504-13. PMID: 12226529

Bishop99: Bishop GJ, Nomura T, Yokota T, Harrison K, Noguchi T, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Jones JD, Kamiya Y (1999). "The tomato DWARF enzyme catalyses C-6 oxidation in brassinosteroid biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(4);1761-6. PMID: 9990098

Choe01: Choe S, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Feldmann KA (2001). "Overexpression of DWARF4 in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway results in increased vegetative growth and seed yield in Arabidopsis." Plant J 26(6);573-82. PMID: 11489171

Choe98: Choe S, Dilkes BP, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Sakurai A, Feldmann KA (1998). "The DWF4 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a cytochrome P450 that mediates multiple 22alpha-hydroxylation steps in brassinosteroid biosynthesis." Plant Cell 1998;10(2);231-43. PMID: 9490746

Choe99: Choe S, Noguchi T, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Tissier CP, Gregory BD, Ross AS, Tanaka A, Yoshida S, Tax FE, Feldmann KA (1999). "The Arabidopsis dwf7/ste1 mutant is defective in the delta7 sterol C-5 desaturation step leading to brassinosteroid biosynthesis." Plant Cell 1999;11(2);207-21. PMID: 9927639

Clouse98: Clouse SD, Sasse JM (1998). "BRASSINOSTEROIDS: Essential Regulators of Plant Growth and Development." Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49;427-451. PMID: 15012241

Ephritikhine99: Ephritikhine G, Pagant S, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Lapous D, Caboche M, Kendrick RE, Barbier-Brygoo H (1999). "The sax1 mutation defines a new locus involved in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant J 18(3);315-20. PMID: 10377996

Finsterbusch99: Finsterbusch A, Lindemann P, Grimm R, Eckerskorn C, Luckner M (1999). "Delta(5)-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh. - a multifunctional enzyme in steroid metabolism?." Planta 209(4);478-86. PMID: 10550629

Friedrichsen01: Friedrichsen D, Chory J (2001). "Steroid signaling in plants: from the cell surface to the nucleus." Bioessays 2001;23(11);1028-36. PMID: 11746219

Fujioka02: Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S (2002). "An early C-22 oxidation branch in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway." Plant Physiol 130(2);930-9. PMID: 12376657

Fujioka03: Fujioka S, Yokota T (2003). "Biosynthesis and metabolism of brassinosteroids." Annu Rev Plant Biol 54;137-64. PMID: 14502988

Fujioka97: Fujioka S, Li J, Choi YH, Seto H, Takatsuto S, Noguchi T, Watanabe T, Kuriyama H, Yokota T, Chory J, Sakurai A (1997). "The Arabidopsis deetiolated2 mutant is blocked early in brassinosteroid biosynthesis." Plant Cell 9(11);1951-62. PMID: 9401120

Fujita06: Fujita S, Ohnishi T, Watanabe B, Yokota T, Takatsuto S, Fujioka S, Yoshida S, Sakata K, Mizutani M (2006). "Arabidopsis CYP90B1 catalyses the early C-22 hydroxylation of C27, C28 and C29 sterols." Plant J 45(5);765-74. PMID: 16460510

Hong02: Hong Z, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Shimizu-Sato S, Inukai Y, Fujioka S, Shimada Y, Takatsuto S, Agetsuma M, Yoshida S, Watanabe Y, Uozu S, Kitano H, Ashikari M, Matsuoka M (2002). "Loss-of-function of a rice brassinosteroid biosynthetic enzyme, C-6 oxidase, prevents the organized arrangement and polar elongation of cells in the leaves and stem." Plant J 32(4);495-508. PMID: 12445121

Kim05: Kim GT, Fujioka S, Kozuka T, Tax FE, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Tsukaya H (2005). "CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 are involved in different steps in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant J 41(5);710-21. PMID: 15703058

Kim05a: Kim TW, Hwang JY, Kim YS, Joo SH, Chang SC, Lee JS, Takatsuto S, Kim SK (2005). "Arabidopsis CYP85A2, a cytochrome P450, mediates the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of castasterone to brassinolide in brassinosteroid biosynthesis." Plant Cell 17(8);2397-412. PMID: 16024588

Koka00: Koka CV, Cerny RE, Gardner RG, Noguchi T, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Clouse SD (2000). "A putative role for the tomato genes DUMPY and CURL-3 in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and response." Plant Physiol 122(1);85-98. PMID: 10631252

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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