MetaCyc Pathway: chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (late stages)
Traceable author statement to experimental support

Pathway diagram: chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (late stages)

Note: a dashed line (without arrowheads) between two compound names is meant to imply that the two names are just different instantiations of the same compound -- i.e. one may be a specific name and the other a general name, or they may both represent the same compound in different stages of a polymerization-type pathway. This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisCarbohydrates BiosynthesisPolysaccharides BiosynthesisGlycosaminoglycans Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Homo sapiens

Expected Taxonomic Range: Metazoa

General Background

Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan composed of alternating units of sulfated N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine and β-D-glucuronate residues. The N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine residues are substituted to varying degrees with sulfate linked to 4- and/or 6-hydroxyl positions, forming N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-O-sulfate or N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4,6-bissulfate, and to a lesser extent the uronic acid residues may be substituted with sulfate at the 2-hydroxyl position forming 2-O-sulfo-β-D-glucuronate. The uronic acid residues may also be substituted with sulfate at the 3-hydroxyl positions, although this substitution is quite rare.

The following names have been used to define different sulfation states:

Chondroitin sulfate A contains β-D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate

Chondroitin sulfate C contains β-D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-O-sulfate

Chondroitin sulfate D contains 2-O-sulfo-β-D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-O-sulfate

Chondroitin sulfate E contains β-D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4,6-bissulfate

The term "chondroitin sulfate B" has been used in the past to refer to dermatan sulfate, but is not used any more.

The chondroitin chains vary in size up to a hundred or more disaccharide repeating units. They are usually found attached to assorted core proteins as part of a proteoglycan complex. Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of connective tissue matrix (such as skin and cartilage), but is also found on cell surface and basement membranes and in intracellular granules of certain cells. Functions in matrix locations are mainly structural, while functions in membranes are mainly as receptors.

Chondroitin sulfate chains are synthesized in situ on the protein chain. They are attached to the core protein via a specific tetrasaccharide known as the "glycoaminoglycan-protein linkage region", which is formed by sequential stepwise additions of the sugar residues to specific core proteins. The synthesis of the linkage region is described in glycoaminoglycan-protein linkage region biosynthesis, and the polymerization of the chondroitin chain is described in chondroitin biosynthesis.

About This Pathway

This pathway describes the later modifications of the chondroitin chain. These modifications include the sulfation of the β-D-glucuronate and N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine residues at different positions by a number of sulfotransferases with strict specificities.

The sulfation of N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine at the 4-hydroxyl position is catalyzed by three enzymes encoded by the CHST11, CHST12 and CHST13 genes [Yamauchi00, Hiraoka00, Kang02]. The sulfation of N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine at the 6-hydroxyl position is catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the CHST3 and CHST7 genes [Tsutsumi98, Fukuta98, Kitagawa00, Bhakta00]. Another enzyme, encoded by CHST15, catalyzes the sulfation at the C6 position of residues already sulfated at the C4 position [Ohtake01].

The C2 position of β-D-glucuronate residues is also often sulfated in a reaction catalyzed by uronyl 2-sulfotransferase, encoded by the UST gene [Kobayashi99].

Superpathways: chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis

Created 06-Aug-2010 by Caspi R, SRI International


Bhakta00: Bhakta S, Bartes A, Bowman KG, Kao WM, Polsky I, Lee JK, Cook BN, Bruehl RE, Rosen SD, Bertozzi CR, Hemmerich S (2000). "Sulfation of N-acetylglucosamine by chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase 2 (GST-5)." J Biol Chem 275(51);40226-34. PMID: 10956661

Fukuta98: Fukuta M, Kobayashi Y, Uchimura K, Kimata K, Habuchi O (1998). "Molecular cloning and expression of human chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1399(1);57-61. PMID: 9714738

Hiraoka00: Hiraoka N, Nakagawa H, Ong E, Akama TO, Fukuda MN, Fukuda M (2000). "Molecular cloning and expression of two distinct human chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferases that belong to the HNK-1 sulfotransferase gene family." J Biol Chem 275(26);20188-96. PMID: 10781601

Kang02: Kang HG, Evers MR, Xia G, Baenziger JU, Schachner M (2002). "Molecular cloning and characterization of chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase-3. A novel member of the HNK-1 family of sulfotransferases." J Biol Chem 277(38);34766-72. PMID: 12080076

Kitagawa00: Kitagawa H, Fujita M, Ito N, Sugahara K (2000). "Molecular cloning and expression of a novel chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase." J Biol Chem 275(28);21075-80. PMID: 10781596

Kobayashi99: Kobayashi M, Sugumaran G, Liu J, Shworak NW, Silbert JE, Rosenberg RD (1999). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a human uronyl 2-sulfotransferase that sulfates iduronyl and glucuronyl residues in dermatan/chondroitin sulfate." J Biol Chem 274(15);10474-80. PMID: 10187838

Ohtake01: Ohtake S, Ito Y, Fukuta M, Habuchi O (2001). "Human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase cDNA is related to human B cell recombination activating gene-associated gene." J Biol Chem 276(47);43894-900. PMID: 11572857

Silbert02: Silbert JE, Sugumaran G (2002). "Biosynthesis of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate." IUBMB Life 54(4);177-86. PMID: 12512856

Trowbridge02: Trowbridge JM, Gallo RL (2002). "Dermatan sulfate: new functions from an old glycosaminoglycan." Glycobiology 12(9);117R-25R. PMID: 12213784

Tsutsumi98: Tsutsumi K, Shimakawa H, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K (1998). "Functional expression and genomic structure of human chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase." FEBS Lett 441(2);235-41. PMID: 9883891

Yamauchi00: Yamauchi S, Mita S, Matsubara T, Fukuta M, Habuchi H, Kimata K, Habuchi O (2000). "Molecular cloning and expression of chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase." J Biol Chem 275(12);8975-81. PMID: 10722746

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Hermanns08: Hermanns P, Unger S, Rossi A, Perez-Aytes A, Cortina H, Bonafe L, Boccone L, Setzu V, Dutoit M, Sangiorgi L, Pecora F, Reicherter K, Nishimura G, Spranger J, Zabel B, Superti-Furga A (2008). "Congenital joint dislocations caused by carbohydrate sulfotransferase 3 deficiency in recessive Larsen syndrome and humero-spinal dysostosis." Am J Hum Genet 82(6);1368-74. PMID: 18513679

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Mikami03: Mikami T, Mizumoto S, Kago N, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K (2003). "Specificities of three distinct human chondroitin/dermatan N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferases demonstrated using partially desulfated dermatan sulfate as an acceptor: implication of differential roles in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 278(38);36115-27. PMID: 12847091

Okuda00: Okuda T, Mita S, Yamauchi S, Matsubara T, Yagi F, Yamamori D, Fukuta M, Kuroiwa A, Matsuda Y, Habuchi O (2000). "Molecular cloning, expression, and chromosomal mapping of human chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase, whose expression pattern in human tissues is different from that of chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase." J Biochem 128(5);763-70. PMID: 11056388

Thiele04: Thiele H, Sakano M, Kitagawa H, Sugahara K, Rajab A, Hohne W, Ritter H, Leschik G, Nurnberg P, Mundlos S (2004). "Loss of chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 function results in severe human chondrodysplasia with progressive spinal involvement." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(27);10155-60. PMID: 15215498

Uchimura00: Uchimura K, Fasakhany F, Kadomatsu K, Matsukawa T, Yamakawa T, Kurosawa N, Muramatsu T (2000). "Diversity of N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferases: molecular cloning of a novel enzyme with different distribution and specificities." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 274(2);291-6. PMID: 10913333

Verkoczy98: Verkoczy LK, Marsden PA, Berinstein NL (1998). "hBRAG, a novel B cell lineage cDNA encoding a type II transmembrane glycoprotein potentially involved in the regulation of recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1)." Eur J Immunol 28(9);2839-53. PMID: 9754571

Yamauchi99: Yamauchi S, Hirahara Y, Usui H, Takeda Y, Hoshino M, Fukuta M, Kimura JH, Habuchi O (1999). "Purification and characterization of chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase from the culture medium of a rat chondrosarcoma cell line." J Biol Chem 274(4);2456-63. PMID: 9891016

Yuki00: Yuki M, Yoshinaga K, Yamakawa H, Sakurada K, Sato S, Yajima A, Horii A (2000). "Structure, expression and mutational analysis of the hBRAG gene on 10q in the frequently deleted region in human endometrial cancer." Oncol Rep 7(6);1339-42. PMID: 11032940

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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