This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: adenosine nucleosides salvage II
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Nucleosides and Nucleotides Biosynthesis → Purine Nucleotide Biosynthesis → Purine Nucleotide Salvage → Adenine and Adenosine Salvage|
Adenosine nucleotides can be synthesized de novo. In that route AMP (AMP) is synthesized via IMP (IMP) and adenylo-succinate , which is converted to AMP by the action of adenylosuccinate lyase (see superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II). Note that the free base adenine or the ribonucleoside adenosine are not produced via the de novo pathway.
Many organisms can also recycle adenosine nucleotides by a combination of degradation and salvage pathways. The degradation pathways are responsible for the conversion of the nucleotides to the nucleoside (adenosine) and free base form (adenine), and further degradation to compounds that can be catabolized to basic building blocks (for example, see adenosine nucleotides degradation II).
The pathway described here is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In it the purine nucleoside is first hydrolyzed to ribose and an adenine base by nucleoside hydrolases. The bases are then converted to the mononucleotide form AMP by adenine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, which utilizes 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-6605
Allen02: Allen M, Qin W, Moreau F, Moffatt B (2002). "Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase isoforms of Arabidopsis and their potential contributions to adenine and cytokinin metabolism." Physiol Plant 115(1);56-68. PMID: 12010467
HochstadtOzer71: Hochstadt-Ozer J, Stadtman ER (1971). "The regulation of purine utilization in bacteria. I. Purification of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Escherichia coli K12 and control of activity by nucleotides." J Biol Chem 246(17);5294-303. PMID: 4328693
Petersen01a: Petersen C, Moller LB (2001). "The RihA, RihB, and RihC ribonucleoside hydrolases of Escherichia coli. Substrate specificity, gene expression, and regulation." J Biol Chem 2001;276(2);884-94. PMID: 11027694
Alfonzo97: Alfonzo JD, Sahota A, Taylor MW (1997). "Purification and characterization of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochim Biophys Acta 1341(2);173-82. PMID: 9357956
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Farone10: Farone A, Farone M, Kline P, Quinn T, Sinkala Z (2010). "A Practical Approach for Computing the Active Site of the Ribonucleoside Hydrolase of E. coli Encoded by rihC." Adv Exp Med Biol 680;437-43. PMID: 20865528
Hershey86: Hershey HV, Taylor MW (1986). "Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of Escherichia coli adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and comparison with other analogous enzymes." Gene 43(3);287-93. PMID: 3527873
Hirose84: Hirose, Fumiko, Ashihara, Hiroshi (1984). "Changes in the activity of enzymes involved in purine "salvage" and nucleic acid degrdation during the growth of Catharanthus roseus cells in suspension culture." Physiol. Plant. 60:532-538.
HochstadtOzer71a: Hochstadt-Ozer J, Stadtman ER (1971). "The regulation of purine utilization in bacteria. II. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase in isolated membrane preparations and its role in transport of adenine across the membrane." J Biol Chem 1971;246(17);5304-11. PMID: 4328694
Jung09: Jung B, Florchinger M, Kunz HH, Traub M, Wartenberg R, Jeblick W, Neuhaus HE, Mohlmann T (2009). "Uridine-ribohydrolase is a key regulator in the uridine degradation pathway of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 21(3);876-91. PMID: 19293370
Kocharian76: Kocharian ShM, sukhodolets VV (1976). "[Phenotypic manifestation of mutations involving resistance to 2,6-diaminopurine (apt) in the genome of purine auxotrophs of Escherichia coli K-12]." Genetika 12(7);100-8. PMID: 793927
Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726
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