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MetaCyc Pathway: adenine and adenosine salvage II
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: adenine and adenosine salvage II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: adenosine nucleosides salvage II

Superclasses: BiosynthesisNucleosides and Nucleotides BiosynthesisPurine Nucleotide BiosynthesisPurine Nucleotide SalvageAdenine and Adenosine Salvage

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Hordeum vulgare, Lupinus luteus

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

Adenosine nucleotides can be synthesized de novo. In that route AMP (AMP) is synthesized via IMP (IMP) and adenylo-succinate , which is converted to AMP by the action of adenylosuccinate lyase (see superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II). Note that the free base adenine or the ribonucleoside adenosine are not produced via the de novo pathway.

Many organisms can also recycle adenosine nucleotides by a combination of degradation and salvage pathways. The degradation pathways are responsible for the conversion of the nucleotides to the nucleoside ( adenosine) and free base form ( adenine), and further degradation to compounds that can be catabolized to basic building blocks (for example, see adenosine nucleotides degradation II).

The pathway described here is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In it the purine nucleoside is first hydrolyzed to ribose and an adenine base by nucleoside hydrolases. The bases are then converted to the mononucleotide form AMP by adenine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, which utilizes 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.

The pathway has been described in both prokaryotes [HochstadtOzer71, Petersen01] and green plants [Guranowski77, Guranowski79, Allen02].

Other routes from adenosine to AMP are described in adenine and adenosine salvage I and adenine and adenosine salvage VI.

Variants: adenine and adenosine salvage I, adenine and adenosine salvage III, adenine and adenosine salvage V, adenine and adenosine salvage VI, adenine salvage

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-6605

Created 20-Sep-2010 by Caspi R, SRI International


Allen02: Allen M, Qin W, Moreau F, Moffatt B (2002). "Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase isoforms of Arabidopsis and their potential contributions to adenine and cytokinin metabolism." Physiol Plant 115(1);56-68. PMID: 12010467

Guranowski77: Guranowski A, Schneider Z (1977). "Purification and characterization of adenosine nucleosidase from barley leaves." Biochim Biophys Acta 482(1);145-58. PMID: 861230

Guranowski79: Guranowski, Andrzej, Barankiewicz, Jerzy (1979). "Purine salvage in cotyledons of germinating lupin seeds." FEBS Letters 104(1): 95-98.

HochstadtOzer71: Hochstadt-Ozer J, Stadtman ER (1971). "The regulation of purine utilization in bacteria. I. Purification of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Escherichia coli K12 and control of activity by nucleotides." J Biol Chem 246(17);5294-303. PMID: 4328693

Petersen01: Petersen C, Moller LB (2001). "The RihA, RihB, and RihC ribonucleoside hydrolases of Escherichia coli. Substrate specificity, gene expression, and regulation." J Biol Chem 2001;276(2);884-94. PMID: 11027694

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Alfonzo97: Alfonzo JD, Sahota A, Taylor MW (1997). "Purification and characterization of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochim Biophys Acta 1341(2);173-82. PMID: 9357956

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Farone10: Farone A, Farone M, Kline P, Quinn T, Sinkala Z (2010). "A Practical Approach for Computing the Active Site of the Ribonucleoside Hydrolase of E. coli Encoded by rihC." Adv Exp Med Biol 680;437-43. PMID: 20865528

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Guranowski82: Guranowski, Andrzej (1982). "Purine catabolism in plants, purification and some properties of inosine nucleosidase from yellow lupin seeds." Plant Physiology 70:344-349.

Hershey86: Hershey HV, Taylor MW (1986). "Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of Escherichia coli adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and comparison with other analogous enzymes." Gene 43(3);287-93. PMID: 3527873

Hirose84: Hirose, Fumiko, Ashihara, Hiroshi (1984). "Changes in the activity of enzymes involved in purine "salvage" and nucleic acid degrdation during the growth of Catharanthus roseus cells in suspension culture." Physiol. Plant. 60:532-538.

Hochstadt78: Hochstadt J (1978). "Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1978;51;558-67. PMID: 357906

HochstadtOzer71a: Hochstadt-Ozer J, Stadtman ER (1971). "The regulation of purine utilization in bacteria. II. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase in isolated membrane preparations and its role in transport of adenine across the membrane." J Biol Chem 1971;246(17);5304-11. PMID: 4328694

Hunt05: Hunt C, Gillani N, Farone A, Rezaei M, Kline PC (2005). "Kinetic isotope effects of nucleoside hydrolase from Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1751(2);140-9. PMID: 16027052

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Jung09: Jung B, Florchinger M, Kunz HH, Traub M, Wartenberg R, Jeblick W, Neuhaus HE, Mohlmann T (2009). "Uridine-ribohydrolase is a key regulator in the uridine degradation pathway of Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 21(3);876-91. PMID: 19293370

Jung10: Jung B, Hoffmann C, Mohlmann T (2010). "Arabidopsis nucleoside hydrolases involved in intracellular and extracellular degradation of purines." Plant J. PMID: 21235647

Khil02: Khil PP, Camerini-Otero RD (2002). "Over 1000 genes are involved in the DNA damage response of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(1);89-105. PMID: 11967071

Kocharian76: Kocharian ShM, sukhodolets VV (1976). "[Phenotypic manifestation of mutations involving resistance to 2,6-diaminopurine (apt) in the genome of purine auxotrophs of Escherichia coli K-12]." Genetika 12(7);100-8. PMID: 793927

Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Mon May 2, 2016, biocyc14.