This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: folic acid salvage, folate salvage, THF salvage
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis → Vitamins Biosynthesis → Folate Biosynthesis|
Tetrahydrofolate (vitamin B9) and its derivatives, commonly termed folates, are essential cofactors that facilitate the transfer of one-carbon units from donor molecules into important biosynthetic pathways leading to methionine, purine, and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Folates also mediate the interconversion of serine and glycine, play a role in histidine catabolism [Lucock00], and in plants are also involved in photorespiration, amino acid metabolism and chloroplastic protein biosynthesis [Hanson02] [Jabrin03].
Folates are abundant in green leaves, and folic acid was initially isolated from a large amount (four tons) of spinach leaves. The name folate is derived from the Latin folium (leaf) [Mitchell41].
Folates are modified by the addition of glutamate moieties conjugated one to another via a series of γ-glutamyl links to form an oligo-γ-glutamyl tail. The polyglutamylated forms are usually preferred by the enzymes that use folates since the turnover rate of those compounds is markedly increased [Cossins97, Scott00, Kirk94]. In addition, in eukaryotic cells the glutamylated forms of folate facilitate the retention of the vitamin within the cell and its subcellular compartments [Appling91].
tetrahydropteroyl mono-L-glutamate (H4PteGlu1) is merely the parent structure of this large family of coenzymes. Members of the family differ in the oxidation state of the pteridine ring, the character of the one-carbon substituent at the N5 and N10 positions (see folate transformations I), and the number of conjugated glutamate residues (see folate polyglutamylation).
About This Pathway
While plants and many microorganisms can synthesize folate coenzymes by the de novo synthesis pathway (see superpathway of tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis), many of them are also capable of salvaging folate from different varieties, such as the 5,10-methenyl form, or the 5- or 10-formyl forms. This pathway describes the conversion of pre-existing 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate and N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate.
As vertebrates are not able to synthesize folate in vivo, they are absolutely dependent on nutritional sources, making folate a vitamin. Food folates exist mainly as the polyglutamylated forms N5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate (formyl-H4PteGlun) [Thien77]. The polyglutamyl folates are first hydrolyzed to monoglutamate forms by γ-glutamyl hydrolase, and subsequently metabolized into N5-methyl-tetrahydropteroyl mono-L-glutamate. More about that process is found at the pathway glutamate removal from folates.
Insufficient supply of the vitamin in vertebrates leads to anemia in adults, and has been shown to cause neural tube malformation in human embryos [Feinleib01]. In addition, folate defficiency has been linked to a number of other birth defects, several types of cancer, dementia, affective disorders, Down's syndrom, and serious conditions affecting pregnancy outcome (for a review, see [Lucock00]).
Superpathways: superpathway of tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis and salvage
Variants: 4-aminobenzoate biosynthesis , folate polyglutamylation , folate transformations I , folate transformations II , glutamate removal from folates , N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis , superpathway of tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis , tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis
Feinleib01: Feinleib M, Beresford SA, Bowman BA, Mills JL, Rader JI, Selhub J, Yetley EA (2001). "Folate fortification for the prevention of birth defects: case study." Am J Epidemiol 154(12 Suppl);S60-9. PMID: 11744531
Jabrin03: Jabrin S, Ravanel S, Gambonnet B, Douce R, Rebeille F (2003). "One-carbon metabolism in plants. Regulation of tetrahydrofolate synthesis during germination and seedling development." Plant Physiol 131(3);1431-9. PMID: 12644692
Allaire98: Allaire M, Li Y, MacKenzie RE, Cygler M (1998). "The 3-D structure of a folate-dependent dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase bifunctional enzyme at 1.5 A resolution." Structure 6(2);173-82. PMID: 9519408
Almassy92: Almassy RJ, Janson CA, Kan CC, Hostomska Z (1992). "Structures of apo and complexed Escherichia coli glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89(13);6114-8. PMID: 1631098
Andersen92a: Andersen PS, Smith JM, Mygind B (1992). "Characterization of the upp gene encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase of Escherichia coli K12." Eur J Biochem 1992;204(1);51-6. PMID: 1371255
Beardsley89: Beardsley GP, Moroson BA, Taylor EC, Moran RG (1989). "A new folate antimetabolite, 5,10-dideaza-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate is a potent inhibitor of de novo purine synthesis." J Biol Chem 264(1);328-33. PMID: 2909524
Chen92: Chen P, Schulze-Gahmen U, Stura EA, Inglese J, Johnson DL, Marolewski A, Benkovic SJ, Wilson IA (1992). "Crystal structure of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase from Escherichia coli at 3.0 A resolution. A target enzyme for chemotherapy." J Mol Biol 227(1);283-92. PMID: 1522592
Chen97a: Chen L, Chan SY, Cossins EA (1997). "Distribution of Folate Derivatives and Enzymes for Synthesis of 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate in Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Fractions of Pea Leaves." Plant Physiol 115(1);299-309. PMID: 12223808
Chen99a: Chen L, Nargang FE, Cossins EA, (1999) "Isolation and sequencing of a plant cDNA encoding a bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase:methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase protein." Pteridines (1999), 10, 171-177.
Cheung97: Cheung E, D'Ari L, Rabinowitz JC, Dyer DH, Huang JY, Stoddard BL (1997). "Purification, crystallization, and preliminary x-ray studies of a bifunctional 5,10-methenyl/methylene-tetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase/dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli." Proteins 27(2);322-4. PMID: 9061797
Curthoys72: Curthoys NP, Scott JM, Rabinowitz JC (1972). "Folate coenzymes of Clostridium acidi-urici. The isolation of (l)-5,10-methenyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate, its conversion to (l)-tetrahydropteroyltriglutamate and (l)-10-( 14 C)formyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate, and the synthesis of (l)-10-formyl-(6,7- 3 H 2 )tetrahydropteroyltriglutamate and (l)-(6,7- 3 H 2 )tetrahydropteroyltriglutamate." J Biol Chem 247(7);1959-64. PMID: 5016637
DAri91: D'Ari L, Rabinowitz JC (1991). "Purification, characterization, cloning, and amino acid sequence of the bifunctional enzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1991;266(35);23953-8. PMID: 1748668
Dev78: Dev IK, Harvey RJ (1978). "A complex of N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and N5,N10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase in Escherichia coli. Purification, subunit structure, and allosteric inhibition by N10-formyltetrahydrofolate." J Biol Chem 1978;253(12);4245-53. PMID: 350870
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
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