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MetaCyc Pathway: methylhalides biosynthesis (plants)
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: methylhalides biosynthesis (plants)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: biogenesis of methylhalides (plants)

Superclasses: BiosynthesisOther Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Batis maritima, Brassica oleracea, Endocladia muricata, Pavlova pinguis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Raphanus sativus

Expected Taxonomic Range: cellular organisms, Viridiplantae

In recent years the destruction of the ozone layer due to the action of halogen radicals and its negative effects on earth has occupied scientific and popular imagination. Methyl halides from biogenic emissions are the main transporters of halogen radicals from the atmosphere to stratosphere. Of the halides, methyl chloride is the most abundant and is released from specific fungi and plants and by the burning of biomass. methyl bromide, which was extensively used as a soil fumigant and is known to strongly deplete stratospheric ozone, has been prohibited in recent times, but is produced by some marine organisms. methyl iodide has lesser half life that methyl chloride and methyl bromide but is known to affect the formation of marine aerosol formation and cloud condensation nuclei [Coulter99].

The anthropogenic, marine and terrestrial biogenic sources of halides are known [Ohsawa01, Coulter99], but the mechanisms of biosynthesis are poorly understood. The enzymes involved are halide ion methyltransferase (HMT) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT). Several flowering plant families are involved in the formation of methyl halides [Wuosmaa90, Attieh95].

Created 18-Feb-2011 by Pujar A, Boyce Thompson Institute


Attieh95: Attieh JM, Hanson AD, Saini HS (1995). "Purification and characterization of a novel methyltransferase responsible for biosynthesis of halomethanes and methanethiol in Brassica oleracea." J Biol Chem 270(16);9250-7. PMID: 7721844

Coulter99: Coulter C, Hamilton JT, McRoberts WC, Kulakov L, Larkin MJ, Harper DB (1999). "Halomethane:bisulfide/halide ion methyltransferase, an unusual corrinoid enzyme of environmental significance isolated from an aerobic methylotroph using chloromethane as the sole carbon source." Appl Environ Microbiol 65(10);4301-12. PMID: 10508052

Itoh09: Itoh N, Toda H, Matsuda M, Negishi T, Taniguchi T, Ohsawa N (2009). "Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish)." BMC Plant Biol 9;116. PMID: 19723322

Ohsawa01: Ohsawa N, Tsujita M, Morikawa S, Itoh N (2001). "Purification and characterization of a monohalomethane-producing enzyme S-adenosyl-L-methionine: halide ion methyltransferase from a marine microalga, Pavlova pinguis." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(11);2397-404. PMID: 11791711

Wuosmaa90: Wuosmaa AM, Hager LP (1990). "Methyl chloride transferase: a carbocation route for biosynthesis of halometabolites." Science 249(4965);160-2. PMID: 2371563

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Ni98: Ni X, Hager LP (1998). "cDNA cloning of Batis maritima methyl chloride transferase and purification of the enzyme." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(22);12866-71. PMID: 9789006

Ni99: Ni X, Hager LP (1999). "Expression of Batis maritima methyl chloride transferase in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(7);3611-5. PMID: 10097085

Rhew03: Rhew RC, Ostergaard L, Saltzman ES, Yanofsky MF (2003). "Genetic control of methyl halide production in Arabidopsis." Curr Biol 13(20);1809-13. PMID: 14561407

Saxena98: Saxena D, Aouad S, Attieh J, Saini HS (1998). "Biochemical characterization of chloromethane emission from the wood-rotting fungus phellinus pomaceus." Appl Environ Microbiol 64(8);2831-5. PMID: 9687437

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.5 on Sat Apr 30, 2016, BIOCYC11A.