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MetaCyc Pathway: diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: betaine lipid biosynthesis

Superclasses: BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis
BiosynthesisSecondary Metabolites Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Ochromonas danica, Rhodobacter sphaeroides

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota


Glycerolipids contain a diacylglycerol moiety to attached to a polar head group and is a common polar lipid found in biological membranes [Klug01]. Betaine lipids have a quaternary amine alcohol bound in ether linkage to the diacylglycerol moiety and are a class of glycerolipids [Klug01]. They are non-phosphorous glycerolipid analogs of a phosphatidylcholine [Riekhof05].

About this Pathway

The betaine lipid diacylglycerol-NNN-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) and a closely related isoform diacylglycerol-O-2'-hydroxymethyl N,N,N,-trimethyl-β-alanine were discovered in the unicellular alga Ochromonas danica [Brown74]. The biosynthesis of these lipids has been studied in phosphate starved cells of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides [Klug01]. DGTS has also been found in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other lower plants and fungi, and may take the place of phosphatidylcholine in the membranes of these organisms. DGTS is a significant polar acyl lipid of the chloroplast thylakoid membrane and cellular fraction, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Janero82]. While cellular DGTS contains a greater proportion of C-20 and equal amounts of saturated and tetraene fatty acids, the DGTS of the thylakoids is richer in trienes [Janero82].

Created 20-Apr-2011 by Weerasinghe D, SRI International


Brown74: Brown AE, Elovson J (1974). "Isolation and characterization of a novel lipid, 1(3),2-diacylglyceryl-(3)-O-4'-(N,N,N-trimethyl)homoserine, from Ochromonas danica." Biochemistry 13(17);3476-82. PMID: 4367424

Janero82: Janero DR, Barrnett R (1982). "Isolation and characterization of an ether-linked homoserine lipid from the thylakoid membrane of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 137+." J Lipid Res 23(2);307-16. PMID: 7077145

Klug01: Klug RM, Benning C (2001). "Two enzymes of diacylglyceryl-O-4'-(N,N,N,-trimethyl)homoserine biosynthesis are encoded by btaA and btaB in the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(10);5910-5. PMID: 11331765

Riekhof05: Riekhof WR, Andre C, Benning C (2005). "Two enzymes, BtaA and BtaB, are sufficient for betaine lipid biosynthesis in bacteria." Arch Biochem Biophys 441(1);96-105. PMID: 16095555

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.5 on Sat Apr 30, 2016, BIOCYC11A.