This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Nitrogen-Containing Secondary Compounds Biosynthesis → Alkaloids Biosynthesis|
Ricinine is a cyano-pyridone alkaloid produced by some plants. It was first identified in the leaves and the pericarp of the fruits of the toxic plant castor bean (Ricinus communis) [Bogdashevskaia52, Bogdashevskaia54, Grimme75] (hence the name), but it is also produced by other plants including Aparisthmium cordatum [Souza13], Jatropha gossypiifolia, Piper nigrum, Nicotiana tabacum and other plant species belonging to the Solanaceae family [Bullangpoti11].
Ricinine should not be confused with ricin, a toxic protein that is also produced by Ricinus communis, and is found in the seeds.
Degradation of ricinine in the living plant has been known for a long time [Waller69]. Experiments in castor bean plants have shown that ricinine concentration decreases in the leaves upon aging when grown in nitrogen depleted soil. Despite the fact that the degradation of ricinine in the plant has been under investigation for several decades, it is still not well understood. Ricinine is rapidly utilized by castor cotyledons grown in the dark and degradation of ricinine in cell-free system of young castor plants has been demonstrated [Waller65]. However, no enzymes have been isolated.
Bullangpoti11: Bullangpoti, V, Khumrungsee, N, Pluempanupat, W, Kainoh, Y, Saguanpong, U. (2011). "Toxicity of ethyl acetate extract and ricinine from Jatropha gossypifolia senescent leaves against Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Journal of Pestcide Science 36: 260-263.
Ferraz00: Ferraz AC, Pereira LF, Ribeiro RL, Wolfman C, Medina JH, Scorza FA, Santos NF, Cavalheiro EA, Da Cunha C (2000). "Ricinine-elicited seizures. A novel chemical model of convulsive seizures." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 65(4);577-83. PMID: 10764909
Ferraz99: Ferraz AC, Angelucci ME, Da Costa ML, Batista IR, De Oliveira BH, Da Cunha C (1999). "Pharmacological evaluation of ricinine, a central nervous system stimulant isolated from Ricinus communis." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 63(3);367-75. PMID: 10418776
Souza13: Souza KM, Guilhon GM, Santos LS, Cascaes MM, Secco RS, Brasil DS, Andrade EH, Marinho PS, Freire LR, Muller AH (2013). "Ricinine and other constituents of Aparisthmium cordatum (Euphorbiaceae)." Nat Prod Res 27(4-5);364-70. PMID: 22708684
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