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MetaCyc Pathway: NADH repair
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: NADH repair

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota

Studies in the 1950's have shown that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase slowly catalyzes the formation of a hydrated form of NADH, called NADHX, from NADH [Rafter54]. The equilibrium of this hydration reaction is in favor (100/1) of the hydrated form [Acheson88], making the reaction virtually irreversible. In addition, NADHX can be formed spontaneously from NADH under slightly acidic conditions.

NADHX and NADPHX are inhibitors of several dehydrogenases [Prabhakar98] and it is thus important to eliminate them. This is achieved by the enzyme ATP-dependent NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase which has been originally described from yeast [Meinhart56]. Upon identification of the yeast enzyme it was found that homologs are found in the overwhelming majority of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The human and yeast enzymes also accept (S)-NADPHX, with higher maximal activity [Marbaix11].

Since both (R)-NADHX and (S)-NADHX are formed, but ATP-dependent NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase can only accept the S-form, the R form needs to be epimerized to the S-form before it can converted back to NADH. This is achieved by the enzyme NADHX epimerase [Marbaix11].

While the two enzymes are encoded by two different genes in yeast and humans, in Escherichia coli a single bifunctional protein (encoded by the YjeF gene) is responsible for catalyzing both reactions. However, that protein differs from the eukaryotic proteins by using ADP rather than ATP to drive the dehydration reaction [Marbaix11].

Created 19-Oct-2011 by Caspi R, SRI International


Acheson88: Acheson SA, Kirkman HN, Wolfenden R (1988). "Equilibrium of 5,6-hydration of NADH and mechanism of ATP-dependent dehydration." Biochemistry 27(19);7371-5. PMID: 3061454

Marbaix11: Marbaix AY, Noel G, Detroux AM, Vertommen D, Van Schaftingen E, Linster CL (2011). "Extremely Conserved ATP- or ADP-dependent Enzymatic System for Nicotinamide Nucleotide Repair." J Biol Chem 286(48);41246-52. PMID: 21994945

Meinhart56: Meinhart, J. O., Chaykin, S., Krebs, E. G. (1956). "Enzymatic conversion of a reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide derivative to reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide." J. Biol. Chem. 220: 821-829.

Prabhakar98: Prabhakar P, Laboy JI, Wang J, Budker T, Din ZZ, Chobanian M, Fahien LA (1998). "Effect of NADH-X on cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." Arch Biochem Biophys 360(2);195-205. PMID: 9851831

Rafter54: Rafter, G. W., Chaykin, S., Krebs, E. G. (1954). "The action of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide." J. Biol. Chem. 208: 799-812. PMID: 13174589

Yoshida75: Yoshida A, Dave V (1975). "Inhibition of NADP-dependent dehydrogenases by modified products of NADPH." Arch Biochem Biophys 169(1);298-303. PMID: 239637

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arcari84: Arcari P, Martinelli R, Salvatore F (1984). "The complete sequence of a full length cDNA for human liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: evidence for multiple mRNA species." Nucleic Acids Res 12(23);9179-89. PMID: 6096821

Benham89: Benham FJ, Povey S (1989). "Members of the human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-related gene family map to dispersed chromosomal locations." Genomics 5(2);209-14. PMID: 2793178

Butterfield10: Butterfield DA, Hardas SS, Lange ML (2010). "Oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Alzheimer's disease: many pathways to neurodegeneration." J Alzheimers Dis 20(2);369-93. PMID: 20164570

Ercolani88: Ercolani L, Florence B, Denaro M, Alexander M (1988). "Isolation and complete sequence of a functional human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene." J Biol Chem 263(30);15335-41. PMID: 3170585

Hanauer84: Hanauer A, Mandel JL (1984). "The glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase gene family: structure of a human cDNA and of an X chromosome linked pseudogene; amazing complexity of the gene family in mouse." EMBO J 3(11);2627-33. PMID: 6096136

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Mazzola02: Mazzola JL, Sirover MA (2002). "Alteration of intracellular structure and function of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: a common phenotype of neurodegenerative disorders?." Neurotoxicology 23(4-5);603-9. PMID: 12428732

Piechaczyk84: Piechaczyk M, Blanchard JM, Riaad-El Sabouty S, Dani C, Marty L, Jeanteur P (1984). "Unusual abundance of vertebrate 3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogenes." Nature 312(5993);469-71. PMID: 6095107

Sirover99: Sirover MA (1999). "New insights into an old protein: the functional diversity of mammalian glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1432(2);159-84. PMID: 10407139

Tso85: Tso JY, Sun XH, Kao TH, Reece KS, Wu R (1985). "Isolation and characterization of rat and human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNAs: genomic complexity and molecular evolution of the gene." Nucleic Acids Res 13(7);2485-502. PMID: 2987855

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Apr 30, 2016, biocyc14.