Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

MetaCyc Pathway: glycerophosphodiester degradation
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: glycerophosphodiester degradation

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAlcohols DegradationGlycerol Degradation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Synechocystis

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria

Escherichia coli K12 possesses two systems the salvage of glycerophosphoryl diesters, the Glp system and the Ugp system.

In the Glp system, the glpQ gene encodes a periplasmic glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase (periplasmic GDP) which hydrolyzes deacylated phospholipids to an alcohol and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The latter is then transported into the cell by the GlpT transporter. Periplasmic GDP is specific for the glycerophospho- moiety of the substrate, while the alcohol can be any one of several alcohols. This provides the cell with the capability of channeling a wide variety of glycerophosphodiesters into the glpQT-encoded dissimilatory system.

In the Ugp system the diesters are hydrolyzed during transport at the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and an alcohol by a cytoplasmic GDP, an enzyme encoded by the ugpQ gene. The Ugp system is induced when the cells are starved for inorganic phospate, which is generates phosphate by the system [Tommassen91].

In Escherichia coli sn-glycerol 3-phosphate can be further metabolized to glycerone phosphate by either of two membrane-bound enzymes, depending on the growth conditions. The presumed role of this process is the salvage of glycerol and glycerol phosphates generated by the breakdown of phospholipids and triacylglycerol. Under aerobic conditions, a homodimeric aerobic glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (encoded by the glpD gene) is produced, which can accept either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor [Schryvers78]. Under anaerobic conditions, a different glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase is preferentially expressed. This tri-heteromeric protein complex, which is encoded by the glpACB operon, channels the electrons from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to either fumarate or nitrate [Cole88].

Superpathways: glycerol and glycerophosphodiester degradation

Variants: glycerol degradation I, glycerol degradation II, glycerol degradation III, glycerol degradation V, superpathway of glycerol degradation to 1,3-propanediol

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-6952

Created 09-Nov-2011 by Caspi R, SRI International


Cole88: Cole ST, Eiglmeier K, Ahmed S, Honore N, Elmes L, Anderson WF, Weiner JH (1988). "Nucleotide sequence and gene-polypeptide relationships of the glpABC operon encoding the anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1988;170(6);2448-56. PMID: 3286606

Schryvers78: Schryvers A, Lohmeier E, Weiner JH (1978). "Chemical and functional properties of the native and reconstituted forms of the membrane-bound, aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 253(3);783-8. PMID: 340460

Tommassen91: Tommassen J, Eiglmeier K, Cole ST, Overduin P, Larson TJ, Boos W (1991). "Characterization of two genes, glpQ and ugpQ, encoding glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterases of Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 1991;226(1-2);321-7. PMID: 1851953

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Argast78: Argast M, Ludtke D, Silhavy TJ, Boos W (1978). "A second transport system for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 136(3);1070-83. PMID: 363686

Austin91: Austin D, Larson TJ (1991). "Nucleotide sequence of the glpD gene encoding aerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1991;173(1);101-7. PMID: 1987111

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Brzoska88: Brzoska P, Boos W (1988). "Characteristics of a ugp-encoded and phoB-dependent glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase which is physically dependent on the ugp transport system of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1988;170(9);4125-35. PMID: 2842304

Cozzarelli65: Cozzarelli NR, Koch JP, Hayashi S, Lin EC (1965). "Growth stasis by accumulated L-alpha-glycerophosphate in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 90(5);1325-9. PMID: 5321485

Cozzarelli68: Cozzarelli NR, Freedberg WB, Lin EC (1968). "Genetic control of L-alpha-glycerophosphate system in Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 31(3);371-87. PMID: 4866330

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

FernandezMurray05: Fernandez-Murray JP, McMaster CR (2005). "Glycerophosphocholine catabolism as a new route for choline formation for phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the Kennedy pathway." J Biol Chem 280(46);38290-6. PMID: 16172116

Ferrer96: Ferrer J, Aoki M, Behn P, Nestorowicz A, Riggs A, Permutt MA (1996). "Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cloning of an alternatively spliced human islet-cell cDNA, tissue distribution, physical mapping, and identification of a polymorphic genetic marker." Diabetes 45(2);262-6. PMID: 8549872

Freedberg73: Freedberg WB, Lin EC (1973). "Three kinds of controls affecting the expression of the glp regulon in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 115(3);816-23. PMID: 4580569

GOA01: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA01a: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

Gong00: Gong Q, Brown LJ, MacDonald MJ (2000). "Functional analysis of two promoters for the human mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase gene." J Biol Chem 275(48);38012-21. PMID: 10954707

HenggeAronis86: Hengge-Aronis R, Boos W (1986). "Translational control of exported proteins in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 167(2);462-6. PMID: 3015871

Iuchi90: Iuchi S, Cole ST, Lin EC (1990). "Multiple regulatory elements for the glpA operon encoding anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the glpD operon encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli: further characterization of respiratory control." J Bacteriol 172(1);179-84. PMID: 2403539

Kawamukai02: Kawamukai M (2002). "Biosynthesis, bioproduction and novel roles of ubiquinone." J Biosci Bioeng 94(6);511-7. PMID: 16233343

Kistler71: Kistler WS, Lin EC (1971). "Anaerobic L- -glycerophosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: its genetic locus and its physiological role." J Bacteriol 108(3);1224-34. PMID: 4945192

Larson83: Larson TJ, Ehrmann M, Boos W (1983). "Periplasmic glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of Escherichia coli, a new enzyme of the glp regulon." J Biol Chem 1983;258(9);5428-32. PMID: 6304089

Larson88: Larson TJ, van Loo-Bhattacharya AT (1988). "Purification and characterization of glpQ-encoded glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli K-12." Arch Biochem Biophys 1988;260(2);577-84. PMID: 2829735

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Mon Feb 8, 2016, biocyc12.