This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: jasmonate biosynthesis
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Hormones Biosynthesis → Plant Hormones Biosynthesis → Jasmonates Biosynthesis|
|Biosynthesis → Secondary Metabolites Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid Derivatives Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae
Jasmonic acid (JA), its cyclic precursors and derivatives are collectively referred to as jasmonates (JAs). Jasmonates are important intracellular regulators mediating diverse developmental processes, such as seed germination, flower and fruit development, leaf abscission, and senescence [Creelman95]. In addition, jasmonates induce plant defense responses against a group of pathogens [Reymond98] and mechanical or herbivorous insect-driven wounding [Creelman92].
JA biosynthesis starts with the conversion of linolenate to 12-oxo-phytodienoate (OPDA) in the chloroplast, by sequential actions of lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS) and allene oxide cyclase (AOC). OPDA once formed in the chloroplast needs to be transported into the peroxisome where it is reduced by OPDA reductase to give rise to 3-oxo-2(cis-2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoate (OPC8). OPC8, in its CoA form, is converted to JA by shortening six carbons from the octanoate side chain via three cycles of beta oxidation. The final steps of JA synthesis is catalyzed by three core enzymes of the beta-oxidation cycle, acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX), multifunctional protein containing 2-trans-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (KAT).
JA biosynthesis is regulated at the transcriptional level. Strong correlation of gene expression of the Arabidopsis OPR3 (At2g06050) with 13-LOX (At1g72520, At1g17420), AOC (At3g25780), AOS (At5g42650) and OPCL1 (At1g20510) was reported in [Koo06].
Superpathways: superpathway of lipoxygenase
Unification Links: AraCyc:PWY-735
Creelman92: Creelman RA, Tierney ML, Mullet JE (1992). "Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89(11);4938-41. PMID: 1594598
Creelman95: Creelman RA, Mullet JE (1995). "Jasmonic acid distribution and action in plants: regulation during development and response to biotic and abiotic stress." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92(10);4114-9. PMID: 11607536
Farmer90: Farmer EE, Ryan CA (1990). "Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990;87(19);7713-6. PMID: 11607107
Hofmann06: Hofmann E, Zerbe P, Schaller F (2006). "The Crystal Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana Allene Oxide Cyclase: Insights into the Oxylipin Cyclization Reaction." Plant Cell 18(11);3201-17. PMID: 17085685
Koo06: Koo AJ, Chung HS, Kobayashi Y, Howe GA (2006). "Identification of a peroxisomal acyl-activating enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis." J Biol Chem 281(44);33511-20. PMID: 16963437
Seo01: Seo HS, Song JT, Cheong JJ, Lee YH, Lee YW, Hwang I, Lee JS, Choi YD (2001). "Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase: a key enzyme for jasmonate-regulated plant responses." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001;98(8);4788-93. PMID: 11287667
Wasternack07: Wasternack C (2007). "Jasmonates: an update on biosynthesis, signal transduction and action in plant stress response, growth and development." Ann Bot (Lond) 100(4);681-97. PMID: 17513307
Bachmann02: Bachmann A, Hause B, Maucher H, Garbe E, Voros K, Weichert H, Wasternack C, Feussner I (2002). "Jasmonate-induced lipid peroxidation in barley leaves initiated by distinct 13-LOX forms of chloroplasts." Biol Chem 383(10);1645-57. PMID: 12452441
Bell95: Bell E, Creelman RA, Mullet JE (1995). "A chloroplast lipoxygenase is required for wound-induced jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995;92(19);8675-9. PMID: 7567995
Cruz04: Cruz Castillo M, Martinez C, Buchala A, Metraux JP, Leon J (2004). "Gene-specific involvement of beta-oxidation in wound-activated responses in Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 135(1);85-94. PMID: 15141068
Delker07: Delker C, Zolman BK, Miersch O, Wasternack C (2007). "Jasmonate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana requires peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes--additional proof by properties of pex6 and aim1." Phytochemistry 68(12);1642-50. PMID: 17544464
Fonseca09: Fonseca S, Chini A, Hamberg M, Adie B, Porzel A, Kramell R, Miersch O, Wasternack C, Solano R (2009). "(+)-7-iso-Jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine is the endogenous bioactive jasmonate." Nat Chem Biol 5(5);344-50. PMID: 19349968
Laudert96: Laudert D, Pfannschmidt U, Lottspeich F, Hollander-Czytko H, Weiler EW (1996). "Cloning, molecular and functional characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana allene oxide synthase (CYP 74), the first enzyme of the octadecanoid pathway to jasmonates." Plant Mol Biol 1996;31(2);323-35. PMID: 8756596
Li05c: Li C, Schilmiller AL, Liu G, Lee GI, Jayanty S, Sageman C, Vrebalov J, Giovannoni JJ, Yagi K, Kobayashi Y, Howe GA (2005). "Role of beta-oxidation in jasmonate biosynthesis and systemic wound signaling in tomato." Plant Cell 17(3);971-86. PMID: 15722469
Peng94: Peng YL, Shirano Y, Ohta H, Hibino T, Tanaka K, Shibata D (1994). "A novel lipoxygenase from rice. Primary structure and specific expression upon incompatible infection with rice blast fungus." J Biol Chem 269(5);3755-61. PMID: 7508918
Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216
Rylott06: Rylott EL, Eastmond PJ, Gilday AD, Slocombe SP, Larson TR, Baker A, Graham IA (2006). "The Arabidopsis thaliana multifunctional protein gene (MFP2) of peroxisomal beta-oxidation is essential for seedling establishment." Plant J 45(6);930-41. PMID: 16507084
Sanders00: Sanders PM, Lee PY, Biesgen C, Boone JD, Beals TP, Weiler EW, Goldberg RB (2000). "The arabidopsis DELAYED DEHISCENCE1 gene encodes an enzyme in the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway." Plant Cell 12(7);1041-61. PMID: 10899973
Schaller00: Schaller F, Biesgen C, Mussig C, Altmann T, Weiler EW (2000). "12-Oxophytodienoate reductase 3 (OPR3) is the isoenzyme involved in jasmonate biosynthesis." Planta 210(6);979-84. PMID: 10872231
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