This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: glyoxalase pathway, methylglyoxal catabolism
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Aldehyde Degradation|
|Detoxification → Methylglyoxal Detoxification|
Methylglyoxal is produced in small amounts during glycolysis (via glycerone phosphate), fatty acid metabolism (via acetone), and protein metabolism (via aminoacetone). Methylglyoxal is highly toxic, most likely as a result of its interaction with protein side chains (see [Kalapos99] for a review). There are several pathways for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, based on different enzymes that are able to convert methylglyoxal to less toxic compounds. These enzymes include glyoxalase enzymes, methylglyoxal reductases, aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases and methylglyoxal dehydrogenases.
About This Pathway
The most common pathway for methylglyoxal detoxification is the glyoxalase system, which is composed of two enzymes that together convert methylglyoxal to (R)-lactate in the presence of glutathione (see methylglyoxal degradation I).
However, a single enzyme, glyoxylase III, which was discovered in Escherichia coli K-12, is able to catalyze this conversion in a single step without involvement of glutathione [Misra95]. Activity of glyoxylase III increases at the transition to stationary phase and expression is dependent on RpoS, suggesting that this pathway may be important during stationary phase [Benov04].
Superpathways: superpathway of methylglyoxal degradation
Variants: methylglyoxal degradation I, methylglyoxal degradation III, methylglyoxal degradation IV, methylglyoxal degradation V, methylglyoxal degradation VI, methylglyoxal degradation VII, methylglyoxal degradation VIII
Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-901
Misra95: Misra K, Banerjee AB, Ray S, Ray M (1995). "Glyoxalase III from Escherichia coli: a single novel enzyme for the conversion of methylglyoxal into D-lactate without reduced glutathione." Biochem J 1995;305 ( Pt 3);999-1003. PMID: 7848303
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Barnes70: Barnes EM, Kaback HR (1970). "Beta-galactoside transport in bacterial membrane preparations: energy coupling via membrane-bounded D-lactic dehydrogenase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 66(4);1190-8. PMID: 4394455
Barnes71: Barnes EM, Kaback HR (1971). "Mechanisms of active transport in isolated membrane vesicles. I. The site of energy coupling between D-lactic dehydrogenase and beta-galactoside transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles." J Biol Chem 1971;246(17);5518-22. PMID: 4330922
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Fung79: Fung LW, Pratt EA, Ho C (1979). "Biochemical and biophysical studies on the interaction of a membrane-bound enzyme, D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, with phospholipids." Biochemistry 1979;18(2);317-24. PMID: 369600
GeorgeNasciment76: George-Nascimento C, Wakil SJ, Short SA, Kaback HR (1976). "Effect of lipids on the reconstitution of D-lactate oxidase in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles." J Biol Chem 251(21);6662-6. PMID: 789373
Kaback70: Kaback HR, Milner LS (1970). "Relationship of a membrane-bound D-(-)-lactic dehydrogenase to amino acid transport in isolated bacterial membrane preparations." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 66(3);1008-15. PMID: 4316677
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