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MetaCyc Pathway: methylglyoxal degradation II
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: methylglyoxal degradation II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: glyoxalase pathway, methylglyoxal catabolism

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationAldehyde Degradation
DetoxificationMethylglyoxal Detoxification

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

General Background

Methylglyoxal is produced in small amounts during glycolysis (via glycerone phosphate), fatty acid metabolism (via acetone), and protein metabolism (via aminoacetone). Methylglyoxal is highly toxic, most likely as a result of its interaction with protein side chains (see [Kalapos99] for a review). There are several pathways for the detoxification of methylglyoxal, based on different enzymes that are able to convert methylglyoxal to less toxic compounds. These enzymes include glyoxalase enzymes, methylglyoxal reductases, aldose reductases, aldehyde reductases and methylglyoxal dehydrogenases.

About This Pathway

The most common pathway for methylglyoxal detoxification is the glyoxalase system, which is composed of two enzymes that together convert methylglyoxal to (R)-lactate in the presence of glutathione (see methylglyoxal degradation I).

However, a single enzyme, glyoxylase III, which was discovered in Escherichia coli K-12, is able to catalyze this conversion in a single step without involvement of glutathione [Misra95]. Activity of glyoxylase III increases at the transition to stationary phase and expression is dependent on RpoS, suggesting that this pathway may be important during stationary phase [Benov04].

Superpathways: superpathway of methylglyoxal degradation

Variants: methylglyoxal degradation I, methylglyoxal degradation III, methylglyoxal degradation IV, methylglyoxal degradation V, methylglyoxal degradation VI, methylglyoxal degradation VII, methylglyoxal degradation VIII

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY-901

Created 09-Aug-2001 by Pellegrini-Toole A, Marine Biological Laboratory
Revised 19-Jan-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International


Benov04: Benov L, Sequeira F, Beema AF (2004). "Role of rpoS in the regulation of glyoxalase III in Escherichia coli." Acta Biochim Pol 51(3);857-60. PMID: 15448747

Kalapos99: Kalapos MP (1999). "Methylglyoxal in living organisms: chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology and biological implications." Toxicol Lett 110(3);145-75. PMID: 10597025

Misra95: Misra K, Banerjee AB, Ray S, Ray M (1995). "Glyoxalase III from Escherichia coli: a single novel enzyme for the conversion of methylglyoxal into D-lactate without reduced glutathione." Biochem J 1995;305 ( Pt 3);999-1003. PMID: 7848303

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Barnes70: Barnes EM, Kaback HR (1970). "Beta-galactoside transport in bacterial membrane preparations: energy coupling via membrane-bounded D-lactic dehydrogenase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 66(4);1190-8. PMID: 4394455

Barnes71: Barnes EM, Kaback HR (1971). "Mechanisms of active transport in isolated membrane vesicles. I. The site of energy coupling between D-lactic dehydrogenase and beta-galactoside transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles." J Biol Chem 1971;246(17);5518-22. PMID: 4330922

Campbell84: Campbell HD, Rogers BL, Young IG (1984). "Nucleotide sequence of the respiratory D-lactate dehydrogenase gene of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 144(2);367-73. PMID: 6386470

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dym00: Dym O, Pratt EA, Ho C, Eisenberg D (2000). "The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(17);9413-8. PMID: 10944213

Ewaschuk05: Ewaschuk JB, Naylor JM, Zello GA (2005). "D-lactate in human and ruminant metabolism." J Nutr 135(7);1619-25. PMID: 15987839

Fung79: Fung LW, Pratt EA, Ho C (1979). "Biochemical and biophysical studies on the interaction of a membrane-bound enzyme, D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, with phospholipids." Biochemistry 1979;18(2);317-24. PMID: 369600

Futai73: Futai M (1973). "Membrane D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Purification and properties." Biochemistry 12(13);2468-74. PMID: 4575624

GeorgeNasciment76: George-Nascimento C, Wakil SJ, Short SA, Kaback HR (1976). "Effect of lipids on the reconstitution of D-lactate oxidase in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles." J Biol Chem 251(21);6662-6. PMID: 789373

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Harold74: Harold FM (1974). "Chemiosmotic interpretation of active transport in bacteria." Ann N Y Acad Sci 227;297-311. PMID: 4275121

Haugaard59: Haugaard N (1959). "D- and L-lactic acid oxidases of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 31(1);66-72. PMID: 13628604

Ho89: Ho C, Pratt EA, Rule GS (1989). "Membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: a model for protein interactions in membranes." Biochim Biophys Acta 988(2);173-84. PMID: 2655708

Hong72: Hong JS, Kaback HR (1972). "Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli pleiotropically defective in active transport." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 69(11);3336-40. PMID: 4343963

Ingledew84: Ingledew WJ, Poole RK (1984). "The respiratory chains of Escherichia coli." Microbiol Rev 48(3);222-71. PMID: 6387427

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Kaback70: Kaback HR, Milner LS (1970). "Relationship of a membrane-bound D-(-)-lactic dehydrogenase to amino acid transport in isolated bacterial membrane preparations." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 66(3);1008-15. PMID: 4316677

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Apr 30, 2016, biocyc13.