MetaCyc Pathway: L-alanine biosynthesis III
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: L-alanine biosynthesis III

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-alanine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Bacillus subtilis subtilis 168, Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Homo sapiens

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D-alanine and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.

At least three pathways ( L-alanine biosynthesis I, L-alanine biosynthesis II, and L-alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. This pathway is carried out in a single step by cysteine desulfurase, in a reaction that is critical for generation of iron-sulfur clusters, thiouridine groups in tRNAs, and a number of other sulfur- and selenium-containing proteins. Although this pathway does generate alanine, a major role in generating the cellular supply of alanine has not been demonstrated.

Superpathways: superpathway of L-alanine biosynthesis

Variants: L-alanine biosynthesis I, L-alanine biosynthesis II

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY0-1021

Created 11-Mar-2004 by Ingraham JL, UC Davis
Last-Curated 12-Mar-2007 by Shearer A, SRI International


Kambampati00: Kambampati R, Lauhon CT (2000). "Evidence for the transfer of sulfane sulfur from IscS to ThiI during the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine in Escherichia coli tRNA." J Biol Chem 2000;275(15);10727-30. PMID: 10753862

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Agar00: Agar JN, Krebs C, Frazzon J, Huynh BH, Dean DR, Johnson MK (2000). "IscU as a scaffold for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis: sequential assembly of [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters in IscU." Biochemistry 39(27);7856-62. PMID: 10891064

An12: An X, Xiong W, Yang Y, Li F, Zhou X, Wang Z, Deng Z, Liang J (2012). "A novel target of IscS in Escherichia coli: participating in DNA phosphorothioation." PLoS One 7(12);e51265. PMID: 23240007

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Bolstad10: Bolstad HM, Wood MJ (2010). "An in vivo method for characterization of protein interactions within sulfur trafficking systems of E. coli." J Proteome Res 9(12);6740-51. PMID: 20936830

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

CuppVickery03: Cupp-Vickery JR, Urbina H, Vickery LE (2003). "Crystal structure of IscS, a cysteine desulfurase from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 330(5);1049-59. PMID: 12860127

Dai12: Dai Y, Outten FW (2012). "The E. coli SufS-SufE sulfur transfer system is more resistant to oxidative stress than IscS-IscU." FEBS Lett 586(22);4016-22. PMID: 23068614

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Ding04a: Ding H, Clark RJ, Ding B (2004). "IscA mediates iron delivery for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters in IscU under the limited accessible free iron conditions." J Biol Chem 279(36);37499-504. PMID: 15247288

Ding05: Ding H, Harrison K, Lu J (2005). "Thioredoxin reductase system mediates iron binding in IscA and iron delivery for the iron-sulfur cluster assembly in IscU." J Biol Chem 280(34);30432-7. PMID: 15985427

Djaman04: Djaman O, Outten FW, Imlay JA (2004). "Repair of oxidized iron-sulfur clusters in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 279(43):44590-9. PMID: 15308657

Ellis01: Ellis KE, Clough B, Saldanha JW, Wilson RJ (2001). "Nifs and Sufs in malaria." Mol Microbiol 41(5);973-81. PMID: 11555280

Flint96a: Flint DH (1996). "Escherichia coli contains a protein that is homologous in function and N-terminal sequence to the protein encoded by the nifS gene of Azotobacter vinelandii and that can participate in the synthesis of the Fe-S cluster of dihydroxy-acid dehydratase." J Biol Chem 1996;271(27);16068-74. PMID: 8663056

Fontecave05: Fontecave M, Choudens SO, Py B, Barras F (2005). "Mechanisms of iron-sulfur cluster assembly: the SUF machinery." J Biol Inorg Chem 10(7);713-21. PMID: 16211402

Forlani05: Forlani F, Cereda A, Freuer A, Nimtz M, Leimkuhler S, Pagani S (2005). "The cysteine-desulfurase IscS promotes the production of the rhodanese RhdA in the persulfurated form." FEBS Lett 579(30);6786-90. PMID: 16310786

Frazzon01: Frazzon J, Dean DR (2001). "Feedback regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(26);14751-3. PMID: 11752417

Fujii00: Fujii T, Maeda M, Mihara H, Kurihara T, Esaki N, Hata Y (2000). "Structure of a NifS homologue: X-ray structure analysis of CsdB, an Escherichia coli counterpart of mammalian selenocysteine lyase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1263-73. PMID: 10684605

GOA00: GOA (2000). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Swiss-Prot keyword mapping."

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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