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MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of L-asparagine biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: superpathway of L-asparagine biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-asparagine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

L-asparagine is synthesized in Escherichia coli from L-aspartate by either of two reactions, utilizing either L-glutamine or ammonia as the amino group donor. Both reactions are ATP driven and yield AMP and pyrophosphate.

The first reaction is catalyzed only by asparagine synthetase B, while the second reaction is catalyzed by both asparagine synthetase A and asparagine synthetase B,

Null mutations in both encoding genes, asnA and asnB, result in asparagine auxotrophy, as does a null mutation only in asnB under conditions of ammonia-limited growth. A null mutation only in asnA has no observable phenotype.

The only known role of asparagine in the metabolism of Escherichia coli is as a constituent of protein.

Review: Reitzer, L. (2004) "Biosynthesis of Glutamate, Aspartate, Asparagine, L-Alanine, and D-Alanine." EcoSal [ECOSAL].

Subpathways: L-asparagine biosynthesis II, L-asparagine biosynthesis I

Variants: cyanide detoxification I, L-asparagine biosynthesis III (tRNA-dependent)

Unification Links: EcoCyc:PWY0-1325

Created 01-May-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


ECOSAL: EcoSal "Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology." Online edition.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Boehlein94: Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM (1994). "Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B. Searching for the catalytic triad." J Biol Chem 269(10);7450-7. PMID: 7907328

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Burland93: Burland V, Plunkett G, Daniels DL, Blattner FR (1993). "DNA sequence and analysis of 136 kilobases of the Escherichia coli genome: organizational symmetry around the origin of replication." Genomics 1993;16(3);551-61. PMID: 7686882

Cedar69: Cedar H, Schwartz JH (1969). "The asparagine synthetase of Escherhic coli. I. Biosynthetic role of the enzyme, purification, and characterization of the reaction products." J Biol Chem 1969;244(15);4112-21. PMID: 4895361

Cedar69a: Cedar H, Schwartz JH (1969). "The asparagine synthetase of Escherichia coli. II. Studies on mechanism." J Biol Chem 1969;244(15);4122-7. PMID: 4895362

Charron04: Charron C, Roy H, Blaise M, Giege R, Kern D (2004). "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of an archaeal asparagine synthetase related to asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 60(Pt 4);767-9. PMID: 15039580

Ciustea05: Ciustea M, Gutierrez JA, Abbatiello SE, Eyler JR, Richards NG (2005). "Efficient expression, purification, and characterization of C-terminally tagged, recombinant human asparagine synthetase." Arch Biochem Biophys 440(1);18-27. PMID: 16023613

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Felton80: Felton J, Michaelis S, Wright A (1980). "Mutations in two unlinked genes are required to produce asparagine auxotrophy in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 142(1);221-8. PMID: 6102983

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Gottschalk86: Gottschalk, G "Bacterial Metabolism, Second Edition." Springer-Verlag, New York. 1986.

Hongo78: Hongo S, Matsumoto T, Sato T (1978). "Purification and properties of asparagine synthetase from rat liver." Biochim Biophys Acta 522(1);258-66. PMID: 23163

Hongo83: Hongo S, Sato T (1983). "Some molecular properties of asparagine synthetase from rat liver." Biochim Biophys Acta 742(3);484-9. PMID: 6132621

Hongo85: Hongo S, Sato T (1985). "Kinetic studies of asparagine synthetase from rat liver: role of Mg2+ in enzyme catalysis." Arch Biochem Biophys 238(2);410-7. PMID: 2859838

Humbert80: Humbert R, Simoni RD (1980). "Genetic and biomedical studies demonstrating a second gene coding for asparagine synthetase in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1980;142(1);212-20. PMID: 6102982

Hwang11: Hwang IS, An SH, Hwang BK (2011). "Pepper asparagine synthetase 1 (CaAS1) is required for plant nitrogen assimilation and defense responses to microbial pathogens." Plant J. PMID: 21535260

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Wed May 4, 2016, biocyc13.