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MetaCyc Pathway: L-ascorbate biosynthesis IV

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Synonyms: vitamin C biosynthesis, L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis IV

Superclasses: Biosynthesis Cofactors, Prosthetic Groups, Electron Carriers Biosynthesis Vitamins Biosynthesis Ascorbate Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include ? : Bos taurus , Capra hircus , Mesocricetus auratus , Mus musculus , Rattus norvegicus , Sus scrofa

Expected Taxonomic Range: Vertebrata

Vitamin C (L-ascorbate), a reducing agent and antioxidant, is a cofactor in reactions catalyzed by copper-dependent monooxygenases and iron-dependent dioxygenases. It is synthesized, in vertebrates having this capacity, from D-glucuronate. This compound is formed through direct hydrolysis of UDP-α-D-glucuronate by enzyme(s) bound to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. They share many properties with, and are most likely identical to, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases [Linster07].

L-ascorbate can be biosynthesized by plants (see L-ascorbate biosynthesis I (L-galactose pathway)), some bacteria (see L-ascorbate biosynthesis III) and many vertebrates. It is used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of vitamin supplements, cosmetics and therapeutic preparations. It is also used in the food, beverage and animal feed industries.

L-ascorbate is an essential vitamin in the diet of humans, non-human primates and certain other vertebrates that cannot biosynthesize it (some fish and birds, bats and guinea pigs). These species rely on mechanisms for efficient uptake and recycling of this vitamin (see pathway ascorbate recycling (cytosolic)). It is taken up in the intestine, transported in plasma and delivered to tissues. Its recycling in erythrocytes has been described (reviewed in [May98]). It has roles in collagen biosynthesis, as an antioxidant, as a cofactor in reactions catalyzed by some metal-dependent mono- and dioxygenases, and may be involved in cell signaling reactions and transcription factor activation. A deficiency of vitamin C leads to the disorder scurvy (reviewed in [Bremus06, Linster07]). Yeasts are known to biosynthesize D-erythroascorbate, a 5-carbon analog of ascorbate. It functions as an antioxidant, but it lacks antiscorbutic activity (prevention of scurvy) (reviewed in [Bremus06]).

The mammalian liver pathway for L-ascorbate biosynthesis is shown here. D-glucuronate is formed from hydrolysis of UDP-α-D-glucuronate by a membrane-bound enzyme(s) of the endoplasmic reticulum, probably UDP-glucuronidase(s) (reviewed in [Linster07]. The ultimate precursor of UDP-α-D-glucuronate is D-glucose (see pathway UDP-D-xylose biosynthesis). D-glucuronate is reduced to L-gulonate by a NADP+-dependent aldehyde reductase. A broad specificity lactonase then forms L-gulono-1,4-lactone. The L-gulono-1,4-lactone is oxidized to L-ascorbate by L-gulonolactone oxidase via an intermediate lactone which spontaneously isomerizes to L-ascorbate. The production of hydrogen peroxide by this endoplasmic reticulum enzyme is unusual and transfer of electrons to another acceptor might occur in intact cells, as has been shown for plant homologues of this enzyme. L-Gulonolactone oxidase is deficient in humans and other animals unable to biosynthesize L-ascorbate due to mutations in the gene encoding it [Nishikimi94]. Reviewed in [Linster07, May98]).

Subpathways: UDP-α-D-glucuronate biosynthesis (from UDP-glucose) , UDP-glucose biosynthesis

Variants: L-ascorbate biosynthesis I (L-galactose pathway) , L-ascorbate biosynthesis II (L-gulose pathway) , L-ascorbate biosynthesis III , L-ascorbate biosynthesis V , L-ascorbate biosynthesis VI (engineered pathway)

Created 14-May-2007 by Evsikov A , The Jackson Laboratory
Revised 24-Sep-2008 by Fulcher CA , SRI International


Bremus06: Bremus C, Herrmann U, Bringer-Meyer S, Sahm H (2006). "The use of microorganisms in L-ascorbic acid production." J Biotechnol 124(1);196-205. PMID: 16516325

Linster07: Linster CL, Van Schaftingen E (2007). "Vitamin C. Biosynthesis, recycling and degradation in mammals." FEBS J 274(1);1-22. PMID: 17222174

May98: May JM (1998). "Ascorbate function and metabolism in the human erythrocyte." Front Biosci 3;d1-10. PMID: 9405334

Nishikimi94: Nishikimi M, Fukuyama R, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, Yagi K (1994). "Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human nonfunctional gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the enzyme for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis missing in man." J Biol Chem 269(18);13685-8. PMID: 8175804

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Accorsi89: Accorsi A, Piatti E, Piacentini MP, Gini S, Fazi A (1989). "Isoenzymes of phosphoglucomutase from human red blood cells: isolation and kinetic properties." Prep Biochem 19(3);251-71. PMID: 2533352

Allan00: Allan D, Lohnes D (2000). "Cloning and developmental expression of mouse aldehyde reductase (AKR1A4)." Mech Dev 94(1-2);271-5. PMID: 10842086

Arrecubieta94: Arrecubieta C, Lopez R, Garcia E (1994). "Molecular characterization of cap3A, a gene from the operon required for the synthesis of the capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3: sequencing of mutations responsible for the unencapsulated phenotype and localization of the capsular cluster on the pneumococcal chromosome." J Bacteriol 176(20);6375-83. PMID: 7929009

Bindschedler05: Bindschedler LV, Wheatley E, Gay E, Cole J, Cottage A, Bolwell GP (2005). "Characterisation and expression of the pathway from UDP-glucose to UDP-xylose in differentiating tobacco tissue." Plant Mol Biol 57(2);285-301. PMID: 15821883

Boles94: Boles E, Liebetrau W, Hofmann M, Zimmermann FK (1994). "A family of hexosephosphate mutases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Eur J Biochem 220(1);83-96. PMID: 8119301

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014."

Csutora05: Csutora P, Strassz A, Boldizsar F, Nemeth P, Sipos K, Aiello DP, Bedwell DM, Miseta A (2005). "Inhibition of phosphoglucomutase activity by lithium alters cellular calcium homeostasis and signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 289(1);C58-67. PMID: 15703203

Dai06: Dai N, Petreikov M, Portnoy V, Katzir N, Pharr DM, Schaffer AA (2006). "Cloning and expression analysis of a UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase from melon fruit provides evidence for the major metabolic pathway of galactose metabolism in raffinose oligosaccharide metabolizing plants." Plant Physiol 142(1);294-304. PMID: 16829585

Daran95: Daran JM, Dallies N, Thines-Sempoux D, Paquet V, Francois J (1995). "Genetic and biochemical characterization of the UGP1 gene encoding the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Eur J Biochem 233(2);520-30. PMID: 7588797

Duckworth73: Duckworth HW, Barber BH, Sanwal BD (1973). "The interaction of phosphoglucomutase with nucleotide inhibitors." J Biol Chem 248(4);1431-5. PMID: 4568817

Duggleby96: Duggleby RG, Chao YC, Huang JG, Peng HL, Chang HY (1996). "Sequence differences between human muscle and liver cDNAs for UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and kinetic properties of the recombinant enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 235(1-2);173-9. PMID: 8631325

ElKabbani94: El-Kabbani O, Green NC, Lin G, Carson M, Narayana SV, Moore KM, Flynn TG, DeLucas LJ (1994). "Structures of human and porcine aldehyde reductase: an enzyme implicated in diabetic complications." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 50(Pt 6);859-68. PMID: 15299353

elKabbani95: el-Kabbani O, Judge K, Ginell SL, Myles DA, DeLucas LJ, Flynn TG (1995). "Structure of porcine aldehyde reductase holoenzyme." Nat Struct Biol 2(8);687-92. PMID: 7552731

Fu95: Fu L, Bounelis P, Dey N, Browne BL, Marchase RB, Bedwell DM (1995). "The posttranslational modification of phosphoglucomutase is regulated by galactose induction and glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Bacteriol 177(11);3087-94. PMID: 7768805

Fukasawa62: Fukasawa T, Jokura K, Kurahashi K (1962). "A new enzymic defect of galactose metabolism in Escherichia coli K-12 mutants." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 7;121-5. PMID: 13895791

Garcia93: Garcia E, Garcia P, Lopez R (1993). "Cloning and sequencing of a gene involved in the synthesis of the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3." Mol Gen Genet 239(1-2);188-95. PMID: 8510646

Graille06: Graille M, Baltaze JP, Leulliot N, Liger D, Quevillon-Cheruel S, van Tilbeurgh H (2006). "Structure-based functional annotation: yeast ymr099c codes for a D-hexose-6-phosphate mutarotase." J Biol Chem 281(40);30175-85. PMID: 16857670

Grangeasse03: Grangeasse C, Obadia B, Mijakovic I, Deutscher J, Cozzone AJ, Doublet P (2003). "Autophosphorylation of the Escherichia coli protein kinase Wzc regulates tyrosine phosphorylation of Ugd, a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 278(41);39323-9. PMID: 12851388

Green05: Green MA, Fry SC (2005). "Vitamin C degradation in plant cells via enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-O-oxalyl-L-threonate." Nature 433(7021);83-7. PMID: 15608627

Ha04: Ha MN, Graham FL, D'Souza CK, Muller WJ, Igdoura SA, Schellhorn HE (2004). "Functional rescue of vitamin C synthesis deficiency in human cells using adenoviral-based expression of murine l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase." Genomics 83(3);482-92. PMID: 14962674

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sat Feb 28, 2015, biocyc12.