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MetaCyc Pathway: superpathway of 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis (yeast)
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: superpathway of 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis (yeast)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAromatic Compounds Biosynthesis4-Hydroxybenzoate Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi

Yeast seems to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate by two different ways. It may be produced directly from chorismate by the chorismate pyruvate-lyase reaction, similar to the Escherichia coli K-12 pathway, or it could be alternately formed from L-tyrosine, similar to higher eukaryotes.

The existence of two different routes is consistent with the fact that yeast mutants blocked in the formation of 4-hydroxybenzoate have not been isolated [Meganathan, 2001].

Wild-type yeast normally use the conversion of chorismate to 4-hydroxybenzoate as the source of precursor for ubiquinone. Evidence for the presence of the two alternate routes was obtained using shikimate pathway ( chorismate biosynthesis I) mutants. Mutants blocked in the formation of shikimate or chorismate. However, addition of L-tyrosine to the growth medium restored the ability of these mutants to form 4-hydroxybenzoate and ubiquinone [Olson83].

It is likely that many of the lower eukaryotes that have the shikimate pathway may also contain dual pathways for the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxybenzoate, just like Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Meganathan, 2001].

Citations: [Loscher94]

Subpathways: 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes), 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis II (microbes)

Variants: 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis IV, 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V

Created 16-Jan-2003 by Hong E, Saccharomyces Genome Database
Revised 04-Jan-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Loscher94: Loscher R, Heide L (1994). "Biosynthesis of p-Hydroxybenzoate from p-Coumarate and p-Coumaroyl-Coenzyme A in Cell-Free Extracts of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Cell Cultures." Plant Physiol 106(1);271-279. PMID: 12232327

Meganathan, 2001: Meganathan R (2001). "Ubiquinone biosynthesis in microorganisms." FEMS Microbiol Lett 203(2);131-9. PMID: 11583838

Olson83: Olson RE, Rudney H (1983). "Biosynthesis of ubiquinone." Vitam Horm 40;1-43. PMID: 6369767

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Andersson82: Andersson SM, Pispa JP (1982). "Purification and properties of human liver tyrosine aminotransferase." Clin Chim Acta 125(2);117-23. PMID: 6128088

Blakley77: Blakley ER (1977). "The catabolism of L-tyrosine by an Arthrobacter sp." Can J Microbiol 23(9);1128-39. PMID: 20216

Booth60: Booth, A.N., Masri, M.S., Robbins,D.J., Emerson, O.H., Jones, F.T., DeEds, F. (1960). "Urinary phenolic acid metabolites of tyrosine." J. Biol. Chem. 235: 2649-2652.

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Chang92: Chang KH, Liang PH, Beck W, Scholten JD, Dunaway-Mariano D (1992). "Isolation and characterization of the three polypeptide components of 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS-3." Biochemistry 31(24);5605-10. PMID: 1610806

Collier & Kohlhaw, 1972: Collier RH, Kohlhaw G (1972). "Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1972;112(1);365-71. PMID: 4404056

Costa05: Costa MA, Bedgar DL, Moinuddin SG, Kim KW, Cardenas CL, Cochrane FC, Shockey JM, Helms GL, Amakura Y, Takahashi H, Milhollan JK, Davin LB, Browse J, Lewis NG (2005). "Characterization in vitro and in vivo of the putative multigene 4-coumarate:CoA ligase network in Arabidopsis: syringyl lignin and sinapate/sinapyl alcohol derivative formation." Phytochemistry 66(17);2072-91. PMID: 16099486

DeEknamkul87: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Purification and characterization of tyrosine aminotransferase activities from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures." Arch Biochem Biophys 257(2);430-8. PMID: 2889425

DeEknamkul87a: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Tyrosine aminotransferase: the entrypoint enzyme of the tyrosine-derived pathway in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis." Phytochemistry, 26(7), 1941-1946.

Dietrich91: Dietrich JB, Lorber B, Kern D (1991). "Expression of mammalian tyrosine aminotransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purification to homogeneity and characterization of the enzyme overproduced in the bacteria." Eur J Biochem 201(2);399-407. PMID: 1682148

Ehlting99: Ehlting J, Buttner D, Wang Q, Douglas CJ, Somssich IE, Kombrink E (1999). "Three 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases in Arabidopsis thaliana represent two evolutionarily divergent classes in angiosperms." Plant J 1999;19(1);9-20. PMID: 10417722

Gaid12: Gaid MM, Sircar D, Muller A, Beuerle T, Liu B, Ernst L, Hansch R, Beerhues L (2012). "Cinnamate:CoA Ligase Initiates the Biosynthesis of a Benzoate-Derived Xanthone Phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures." Plant Physiol 160(3);1267-80. PMID: 22992510

Gallagher et al., 2001: Gallagher DT, Mayhew M, Holden MJ, Howard A, Kim KJ, Vilker VL (2001). "The crystal structure of chorismate lyase shows a new fold and a tightly retained product." Proteins 44(3);304-11. PMID: 11455603

Gelfand & Steinberg, 1977: Gelfand DH, Steinberg RA (1977). "Escherichia coli mutants deficient in the aspartate and aromatic amino acid aminotransferases." J Bacteriol 1977;130(1);429-40. PMID: 15983

Gu98: Gu W, Song J, Bonner CA, Xie G, Jensen RA (1998). "PhhC is an essential aminotransferase for aromatic amino acid catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 11);3127-34. PMID: 9846749

Hamberger04: Hamberger B, Hahlbrock K (2004). "The 4-coumarate:CoA ligase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises one rare, sinapate-activating and three commonly occurring isoenzymes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(7);2209-14. PMID: 14769935

Hirakawa12: Hirakawa H, Schaefer AL, Greenberg EP, Harwood CS (2012). "Anaerobic p-Coumarate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Identification of CouR, a MarR Repressor Protein That Binds p-Coumaroyl Coenzyme A." J Bacteriol 194(8);1960-7. PMID: 22328668

Holden et al., 2002: Holden MJ, Mayhew MP, Gallagher DT, Vilker VL (2002). "Chorismate lyase: kinetics and engineering for stability." Biochim Biophys Acta 1594(1);160-7. PMID: 11825618

Iraqui98: Iraqui I, Vissers S, Cartiaux M, Urrestarazu A (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257(2);238-48. PMID: 9491083

Kim04d: Kim KH, Janiak V, Petersen M (2004). "Purification, cloning and functional expression of hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase involved in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in cell cultures of Coleus blumei." Plant Mol Biol 54(3);311-23. PMID: 15284489

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Thu Apr 28, 2016, biocyc13.