This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Aromatic Compounds Biosynthesis → 4-Hydroxybenzoate Biosynthesis|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi
Yeast seems to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate by two different ways. It may be produced directly from chorismate by the chorismate pyruvate-lyase reaction, similar to the Escherichia coli K-12 pathway, or it could be alternately formed from L-tyrosine, similar to higher eukaryotes.
Wild-type yeast normally use the conversion of chorismate to 4-hydroxybenzoate as the source of precursor for ubiquinone. Evidence for the presence of the two alternate routes was obtained using shikimate pathway (chorismate biosynthesis I) mutants. Mutants blocked in the formation of shikimate or chorismate. However, addition of L-tyrosine to the growth medium restored the ability of these mutants to form 4-hydroxybenzoate and ubiquinone [Olson83].
It is likely that many of the lower eukaryotes that have the shikimate pathway may also contain dual pathways for the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxybenzoate, just like Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Meganathan01a].
Loscher94: Loscher R, Heide L (1994). "Biosynthesis of p-Hydroxybenzoate from p-Coumarate and p-Coumaroyl-Coenzyme A in Cell-Free Extracts of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Cell Cultures." Plant Physiol 106(1);271-279. PMID: 12232327
Chang92: Chang KH, Liang PH, Beck W, Scholten JD, Dunaway-Mariano D (1992). "Isolation and characterization of the three polypeptide components of 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS-3." Biochemistry 31(24);5605-10. PMID: 1610806
Collier72: Collier RH, Kohlhaw G (1972). "Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1972;112(1);365-71. PMID: 4404056
Costa05: Costa MA, Bedgar DL, Moinuddin SG, Kim KW, Cardenas CL, Cochrane FC, Shockey JM, Helms GL, Amakura Y, Takahashi H, Milhollan JK, Davin LB, Browse J, Lewis NG (2005). "Characterization in vitro and in vivo of the putative multigene 4-coumarate:CoA ligase network in Arabidopsis: syringyl lignin and sinapate/sinapyl alcohol derivative formation." Phytochemistry 66(17);2072-91. PMID: 16099486
DeEknamkul87: De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE (1987). "Purification and characterization of tyrosine aminotransferase activities from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures." Arch Biochem Biophys 257(2);430-8. PMID: 2889425
Dietrich91: Dietrich JB, Lorber B, Kern D (1991). "Expression of mammalian tyrosine aminotransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purification to homogeneity and characterization of the enzyme overproduced in the bacteria." Eur J Biochem 201(2);399-407. PMID: 1682148
Ehlting99: Ehlting J, Buttner D, Wang Q, Douglas CJ, Somssich IE, Kombrink E (1999). "Three 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases in Arabidopsis thaliana represent two evolutionarily divergent classes in angiosperms." Plant J 1999;19(1);9-20. PMID: 10417722
Gaid12: Gaid MM, Sircar D, Muller A, Beuerle T, Liu B, Ernst L, Hansch R, Beerhues L (2012). "Cinnamate:CoA Ligase Initiates the Biosynthesis of a Benzoate-Derived Xanthone Phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures." Plant Physiol 160(3);1267-80. PMID: 22992510
Gallagher01: Gallagher DT, Mayhew M, Holden MJ, Howard A, Kim KJ, Vilker VL (2001). "The crystal structure of chorismate lyase shows a new fold and a tightly retained product." Proteins 44(3);304-11. PMID: 11455603
Gu98: Gu W, Song J, Bonner CA, Xie G, Jensen RA (1998). "PhhC is an essential aminotransferase for aromatic amino acid catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa." Microbiology 144 ( Pt 11);3127-34. PMID: 9846749
Hamberger04: Hamberger B, Hahlbrock K (2004). "The 4-coumarate:CoA ligase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises one rare, sinapate-activating and three commonly occurring isoenzymes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(7);2209-14. PMID: 14769935
Hirakawa12: Hirakawa H, Schaefer AL, Greenberg EP, Harwood CS (2012). "Anaerobic p-Coumarate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Identification of CouR, a MarR Repressor Protein That Binds p-Coumaroyl Coenzyme A." J Bacteriol 194(8);1960-7. PMID: 22328668
Iraqui98: Iraqui I, Vissers S, Cartiaux M, Urrestarazu A (1998). "Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 and ARO9 genes encoding aromatic aminotransferases I and II reveals a new aminotransferase subfamily." Mol Gen Genet 257(2);238-48. PMID: 9491083
Kim04c: Kim KH, Janiak V, Petersen M (2004). "Purification, cloning and functional expression of hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase involved in rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in cell cultures of Coleus blumei." Plant Mol Biol 54(3);311-23. PMID: 15284489
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