MetaCyc Pathway: phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid BiosynthesisPhospholipid BiosynthesisPhosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Daucus carota, Lemna paucicostata

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

Phosphatidylcholine is one of the major constituents of membrane phospholipids (see superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)). The phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic pathways vary among different organisms.

There are at least four alternative routes have been reported in plants. Two additional routes were reported in animals [Schneider79] and bacteria [Sohlenkamp00] (see pathways phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis V and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VI).

1) The Kennedy pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I) depends on choline kinase and on the availability of choline.

2) The second pathway (depicted here) depends on three consecutive N-methylation steps that are carried out on phospho-bases, phosphoethanolamine, phospho-N-methylethanolamine, and phospho-N-dimethylethanolamine.

3) The third pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III) depends on an initial N-methylation with phospho-base phosphoethanolamine, and followed by two downstream N-methylations on phosphatidyl-bases, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine. In plants, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine is believed to be derived from CDP-methylethanolamine, whereas in animals, it is a direct methylation product from phosphatidylethanolamine [Schneider79].

4) The fourth pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV) depends on two N-methylations with phospho-base phosphoethanolamine and phospho-N-methylethanolamine, followed by a downstream N-methylation on phosphatidyl-base phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine.

Radio tracer experiments with crude cell extracts suggested such a pathway in Lemna and carrot [Datko88], but not in soybean. An Arabidopsis gene (AtNMT1) was isolated through functional complementation of a yeast mutant deficient in phosphatidylcholine. Assay of the AtNMT1 recombinant enzyme indicated that it catalyzes three sequential methylations of phosphoethanolamine to form phosphocholine [Bolognese00].

Citations: [Datko88a, Williams94]

Superpathways: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants), superpathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis

Variants: phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis V, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VI, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VII, phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylcholine, yeast)

Created 25-Sep-2008 by Zhang P, TAIR


Bolognese00: Bolognese CP, McGraw P (2000). "The isolation and characterization in yeast of a gene for Arabidopsis S-adenosylmethionine:phospho-ethanolamine N-methyltransferase." Plant Physiol 124(4);1800-13. PMID: 11115895

Datko88: Datko AH, Mudd SH (1988). "Enzymes of Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis in Lemna, Soybean, and Carrot." Plant Physiol 88(4);1338-1348. PMID: 16666464

Datko88a: Datko AH, Mudd SH (1988). "Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis: Differing Patterns in Soybean and Carrot." Plant Physiol 88(3);854-861. PMID: 16666397

Schneider79: Schneider WJ, Vance DE (1979). "Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in rat liver. Partial purification and characterization of the enzymatic activities." J Biol Chem 254(10);3886-91. PMID: 438165

Sohlenkamp00: Sohlenkamp C, de Rudder KE, Rohrs V, Lopez-Lara IM, Geiger O (2000). "Cloning and characterization of the gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase." J Biol Chem 275(25);18919-25. PMID: 10858449

Williams94: Williams M, Harwood JL (1994). "Alternative pathways for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures." Biochem J 304 ( Pt 2);463-8. PMID: 7998981

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Dewey94: Dewey RE, Wilson RF, Novitzky WP, Goode JH (1994). "The AAPT1 gene of soybean complements a cholinephosphotransferase-deficient mutant of yeast." Plant Cell 6(10);1495-507. PMID: 7994181

Friesen01: Friesen JA, Park YS, Kent C (2001). "Purification and kinetic characterization of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Protein Expr Purif 21(1);141-8. PMID: 11162399

Goode99: Goode JH, Dewey RE (1999). "Characterization of aminoalcoholphosphotransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean." Plant Physiol. Biochem. 37(6): 445-457.

Henneberry99: Henneberry AL, McMaster CR (1999). "Cloning and expression of a human choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase: synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine." Biochem J 339 ( Pt 2);291-8. PMID: 10191259

Hjelmstad91: Hjelmstad RH, Bell RM (1991). "sn-1,2-diacylglycerol choline- and ethanolaminephosphotransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixed micellar analysis of the CPT1 and EPT1 gene products." J Biol Chem 266(7);4357-65. PMID: 1847919

Jones98: Jones PL, Willey DL, Gacesa P, Harwood JL (1998). "Isolation, characterisation and expression of a cDNA for pea cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase." Plant Mol Biol 37(1);179-85. PMID: 9620275

Kalmar94: Kalmar GB, Kay RJ, LaChance AC, Cornell RB (1994). "Primary structure and expression of a human CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1219(2);328-34. PMID: 7918629

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Moore83a: Moore TS Jr, Price-Jones MJ, Harwood JL, (1983) "The effect of indoleacetic acid on phospholipid metabolism in pea stems." Phytochemistry (1983), 22, 2421-2425.

Nishida96: Nishida I, Swinhoe R, Slabas AR, Murata N (1996). "Cloning of Brassica napus CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase cDNAs by complementation in a yeast cct mutant." Plant Mol Biol 31(2);205-11. PMID: 8756587

Nuccio00: Nuccio ML, Ziemak MJ, Henry SA, Weretilnyk EA, Hanson AD (2000). "cDNA cloning of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase from spinach by complementation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and characterization of the recombinant enzyme." J Biol Chem 275(19);14095-101. PMID: 10799484

Slack85: Slack CR, Roughan PG, Browse JA, Gardiner SE (1985). "Some properties of cholinephosphotransferase from developing safflower cotyledons." Biochim. Biophys. Acta 833; 438-448.

TIGR: TIGR Arabidopsis annotation team Communication.

Wang90: Wang X, Moore TS Jr (1990). "Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in castor bean endosperm. Purification and properties of cytidine 5'-triphosphate:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase." Plant Physiol. 93; 250-255.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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