MetaCyc Pathway: phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid BiosynthesisPhospholipid BiosynthesisPhosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Daucus carota, Olea europaea

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

Phosphatidylcholine is one of the major constituents of membrane phospholipids (see superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)). The phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic pathways vary among different organisms.

There are at least four alternative routes have been reported in plants. Two additional routes were reported in animals [Schneider79] and bacteria [Sohlenkamp00] (see pathways phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis V and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VI).

1) The Kennedy pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I) depends on choline kinase and on the availability of choline.

2) The second pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II) depends on three consecutive N-methylation steps that are carried out on phospho-bases, phosphoethanolamine, phospho-N-methylethanolamine, and phospho-N-dimethylethanolamine.

3) The third pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV) depends on an initial N-methylation with phospho-base phosphoethanolamine, and followed by two downstream N-methylations on phosphatidyl-bases, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine. In plants, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine is believed to be derived from CDP-methylethanolamine, whereas in animals, it is a direct methylation product from phosphatidylethanolamine [Schneider79].

4) The fourth pathway (depicted here) depends on two N-methylations with phospho-base phosphoethanolamine and phospho-N-methylethanolamine, followed by a downstream N-methylation on phosphatidyl-base phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine.

Radio tracer experiments with crude cell extracts suggested such a pathway in carrot [Datko88] and in olive [Williams94].

Citations: [Datko88a]

Superpathways: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants), superpathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis

Variants: phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis V, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VI, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VII, phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylcholine, yeast)

Created 25-Sep-2008 by Zhang P, TAIR


Datko88: Datko AH, Mudd SH (1988). "Enzymes of Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis in Lemna, Soybean, and Carrot." Plant Physiol 88(4);1338-1348. PMID: 16666464

Datko88a: Datko AH, Mudd SH (1988). "Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis: Differing Patterns in Soybean and Carrot." Plant Physiol 88(3);854-861. PMID: 16666397

Schneider79: Schneider WJ, Vance DE (1979). "Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in rat liver. Partial purification and characterization of the enzymatic activities." J Biol Chem 254(10);3886-91. PMID: 438165

Sohlenkamp00: Sohlenkamp C, de Rudder KE, Rohrs V, Lopez-Lara IM, Geiger O (2000). "Cloning and characterization of the gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase." J Biol Chem 275(25);18919-25. PMID: 10858449

Williams94: Williams M, Harwood JL (1994). "Alternative pathways for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures." Biochem J 304 ( Pt 2);463-8. PMID: 7998981

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Bolognese00: Bolognese CP, McGraw P (2000). "The isolation and characterization in yeast of a gene for Arabidopsis S-adenosylmethionine:phospho-ethanolamine N-methyltransferase." Plant Physiol 124(4);1800-13. PMID: 11115895

Boumann04: Boumann HA, Chin PT, Heck AJ, De Kruijff B, De Kroon AI (2004). "The yeast phospholipid N-methyltransferases catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine preferentially convert di-C16:1 substrates both in vivo and in vitro." J Biol Chem 279(39);40314-9. PMID: 15258140

Cui93: Cui Z, Vance JE, Chen MH, Voelker DR, Vance DE (1993). "Cloning and expression of a novel phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. A specific biochemical and cytological marker for a unique membrane fraction in rat liver." J Biol Chem 268(22);16655-63. PMID: 8344945

Gaynor90: Gaynor PM, Carman GM (1990). "Phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase activities from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzymological and kinetic properties." Biochim Biophys Acta 1045(2);156-63. PMID: 2198947

Hacker08: Hacker S, Sohlenkamp C, Aktas M, Geiger O, Narberhaus F (2008). "Multiple phospholipid N-methyltransferases with distinct substrate specificities are encoded in Bradyrhizobium japonicum." J Bacteriol 190(2);571-80. PMID: 17993534

Kodaki87: Kodaki T, Yamashita S (1987). "Yeast phosphatidylethanolamine methylation pathway. Cloning and characterization of two distinct methyltransferase genes." J Biol Chem 262(32);15428-35. PMID: 2445736

Kodaki89: Kodaki T, Yamashita S (1989). "Characterization of the methyltransferases in the yeast phosphatidylethanolamine methylation pathway by selective gene disruption." Eur J Biochem 185(2);243-51. PMID: 2684666

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

McGraw89: McGraw P, Henry SA (1989). "Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae opi3 gene: effects on phospholipid methylation, growth and cross-pathway regulation of inositol synthesis." Genetics 122(2);317-30. PMID: 2670666

Nuccio00: Nuccio ML, Ziemak MJ, Henry SA, Weretilnyk EA, Hanson AD (2000). "cDNA cloning of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase from spinach by complementation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and characterization of the recombinant enzyme." J Biol Chem 275(19);14095-101. PMID: 10799484

Ridgway87: Ridgway ND, Vance DE (1987). "Purification of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase from rat liver." J Biol Chem 262(35);17231-9. PMID: 3680298

Ridgway88: Ridgway ND, Vance DE (1988). "Kinetic mechanism of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase." J Biol Chem 263(32);16864-71. PMID: 3182819

TIGR: TIGR Arabidopsis annotation team Communication.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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