MetaCyc Chimeric Pathway: superpathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis

Pathway diagram: superpathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Superpathways

Some taxa known to possess parts of the pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Daucus carota, Glycine max, Lemna paucicostata, Olea europaea

Expected Taxonomic Range: Viridiplantae

Note: This is a chimeric pathway, comprising reactions from multiple organisms, and typically will not occur in its entirety in a single organism. The taxa listed here are likely to catalyze only subsets of the reactions depicted in this pathway.

Please note: This pathway does not represent a single organism. Rather, it is a super-pathway assembled from many pathways found in a variety of organisms, whose purpose is to provide an overview of the metabolic capabilities found in nature, pertaining to the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine.

Phosphatidylcholine is one of the major constituents of membrane phospholipids (see superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)). The phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic pathways vary among different organisms.

There are at least four alternative routes have been reported in plants. Two additional routes were reported in animals [Schneider79] and bacteria [Sohlenkamp00] (see pathways phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis V and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VI).

1) The Kennedy pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I) depends on choline kinase and on the availability of choline.

2) The second pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II) depends on three consecutive N-methylation steps that are carried out on phospho-bases, phosphoethanolamine, phospho-N-methylethanolamine, and phospho-N-dimethylethanolamine.

3) The third pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III) depends on an initial N-methylation with phospho-base phosphoethanolamine, and followed by two downstream N-methylations on phosphatidyl-bases, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine. In plants, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine is believed to be derived from CDP-methylethanolamine, whereas in animals, it is a direct methylation product from phosphatidylethanolamine.

4) The fourth pathway ( phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV) depends on two N-methylations with phospho-base phosphoethanolamine and phospho-N-methylethanolamine, followed by a downstream N-methylation on phosphatidyl-base phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine.

Citations: [Datko88, Tasseva04]

Subpathways: phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II, phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I

Created 26-Sep-2008 by Zhang P, TAIR


Datko88: Datko AH, Mudd SH (1988). "Enzymes of Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis in Lemna, Soybean, and Carrot." Plant Physiol 88(4);1338-1348. PMID: 16666464

Schneider79: Schneider WJ, Vance DE (1979). "Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in rat liver. Partial purification and characterization of the enzymatic activities." J Biol Chem 254(10);3886-91. PMID: 438165

Sohlenkamp00: Sohlenkamp C, de Rudder KE, Rohrs V, Lopez-Lara IM, Geiger O (2000). "Cloning and characterization of the gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase." J Biol Chem 275(25);18919-25. PMID: 10858449

Tasseva04: Tasseva G, Richard L, Zachowski A (2004). "Regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis under salt stress involves choline kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana." FEBS Lett 566(1-3);115-20. PMID: 15147879

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Aktas10: Aktas M, Wessel M, Hacker S, Klusener S, Gleichenhagen J, Narberhaus F (2010). "Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and its significance in bacteria interacting with eukaryotic cells." Eur J Cell Biol 89(12);888-94. PMID: 20656373

Bligny89: Bligny R, Foray MF, Roby C, Douce R (1989). "Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies." J Biol Chem 264(9);4888-95. PMID: 2925673

Bolognese00: Bolognese CP, McGraw P (2000). "The isolation and characterization in yeast of a gene for Arabidopsis S-adenosylmethionine:phospho-ethanolamine N-methyltransferase." Plant Physiol 124(4);1800-13. PMID: 11115895

Boumann04: Boumann HA, Chin PT, Heck AJ, De Kruijff B, De Kroon AI (2004). "The yeast phospholipid N-methyltransferases catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine preferentially convert di-C16:1 substrates both in vivo and in vitro." J Biol Chem 279(39);40314-9. PMID: 15258140

Boumann05: Boumann HA, de Kroon AI (2005). "The contributions of biosynthesis and acyl chain remodelling to the molecular species profile of phosphatidylcholine in yeast." Biochem Soc Trans 33(Pt 5);1146-9. PMID: 16246068

Cui93: Cui Z, Vance JE, Chen MH, Voelker DR, Vance DE (1993). "Cloning and expression of a novel phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. A specific biochemical and cytological marker for a unique membrane fraction in rat liver." J Biol Chem 268(22);16655-63. PMID: 8344945

Datko88a: Datko AH, Mudd SH (1988). "Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis: Differing Patterns in Soybean and Carrot." Plant Physiol 88(3);854-861. PMID: 16666397

deKroon07: de Kroon AI (2007). "Metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and its implications for lipid acyl chain composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochim Biophys Acta 1771(3);343-52. PMID: 17010666

Dewey94: Dewey RE, Wilson RF, Novitzky WP, Goode JH (1994). "The AAPT1 gene of soybean complements a cholinephosphotransferase-deficient mutant of yeast." Plant Cell 6(10);1495-507. PMID: 7994181

Friesen01: Friesen JA, Park YS, Kent C (2001). "Purification and kinetic characterization of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Protein Expr Purif 21(1);141-8. PMID: 11162399

Gaynor90: Gaynor PM, Carman GM (1990). "Phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase activities from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzymological and kinetic properties." Biochim Biophys Acta 1045(2);156-63. PMID: 2198947

Gibellini10: Gibellini F, Smith TK (2010). "The Kennedy pathway--De novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine." IUBMB Life 62(6);414-28. PMID: 20503434

Goode99: Goode JH, Dewey RE (1999). "Characterization of aminoalcoholphosphotransferases from Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean." Plant Physiol. Biochem. 37(6): 445-457.

Hacker08: Hacker S, Sohlenkamp C, Aktas M, Geiger O, Narberhaus F (2008). "Multiple phospholipid N-methyltransferases with distinct substrate specificities are encoded in Bradyrhizobium japonicum." J Bacteriol 190(2);571-80. PMID: 17993534

Hjelmstad91: Hjelmstad RH, Bell RM (1991). "sn-1,2-diacylglycerol choline- and ethanolaminephosphotransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixed micellar analysis of the CPT1 and EPT1 gene products." J Biol Chem 266(7);4357-65. PMID: 1847919

Jones98a: Jones PL, Willey DL, Gacesa P, Harwood JL (1998). "Isolation, characterisation and expression of a cDNA for pea cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase." Plant Mol Biol 37(1);179-85. PMID: 9620275

Kent04: Kent C, Gee P, Lee SY, Bian X, Fenno JC (2004). "A CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Treponema denticola." Mol Microbiol 51(2);471-81. PMID: 14756787

Kim98a: Kim KH, Voelker DR, Flocco MT, Carman GM (1998). "Expression, purification, and characterization of choline kinase, product of the CKI gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273(12);6844-52. PMID: 9506987

Kinney87: Kinney AJ, Clarkson DT, Loughman BC (1987). "The regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in rye (Secale cereale) roots. Stimulation of the nucleotide pathway by low temperature." Biochem J 242(3);755-9. PMID: 3036101

Kodaki87: Kodaki T, Yamashita S (1987). "Yeast phosphatidylethanolamine methylation pathway. Cloning and characterization of two distinct methyltransferase genes." J Biol Chem 262(32);15428-35. PMID: 2445736

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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