This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis → Phospholipid Biosynthesis → Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Eukaryota
Phospholipids are the major structural components of biological membranes in plants, animals, and yeasts. In plants, phospholipids predominate extra-chloroplast membranes including the plasma membrane, mitochondria membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and microsomal membrane, with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine being the major constituents. Phospholipids are mostly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Once synthesized, they are transported to other phospholipid containing membranes.
At least three different pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of an L-1-phosphatidylethanolamine in plants: The decarboxylation pathway (phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis I), the O-phosphoethanolamine transfer pathway (phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis II), and the base (head group) exchange pathway (phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis III). The phosphoethanolamine transfer pathway (this one) is believed to be the major pathway in plants.
Superpathways: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)
Variants: cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis (Xanthomonas) , phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis I , phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis III , phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylethanolamine, yeast)
Nerlich07: Nerlich A, von Orlow M, Rontein D, Hanson AD, Dormann P (2007). "Deficiency in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity in the psd1 psd2 psd3 triple mutant of Arabidopsis affects phosphatidylethanolamine accumulation in mitochondria." Plant Physiol 144(2);904-14. PMID: 17449644
Mizoi06: Mizoi J, Nakamura M, Nishida I (2006). "Defects in CTP:PHOSPHORYLETHANOLAMINE CYTIDYLYLTRANSFERASE affect embryonic and postembryonic development in Arabidopsis." Plant Cell 18(12);3370-85. PMID: 17189343
Nuccio00: Nuccio ML, Ziemak MJ, Henry SA, Weretilnyk EA, Hanson AD (2000). "cDNA cloning of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase from spinach by complementation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and characterization of the recombinant enzyme." J Biol Chem 275(19);14095-101. PMID: 10799484
Rontein01: Rontein D, Nishida I, Tashiro G, Yoshioka K, Wu WI, Voelker DR, Basset G, Hanson AD (2001). "Plants synthesize ethanolamine by direct decarboxylation of serine using a pyridoxal phosphate enzyme." J Biol Chem 276(38);35523-9. PMID: 11461929
Wang91b: Wang XM, Moore TS (1991). "Phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis by castor bean endosperm. Intracellular distribution and characteristics of CTP:ethanolaminephosphate cytidylyltransferase." J Biol Chem 266(30);19981-7. PMID: 1657910
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