MetaCyc Pathway: phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic)
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid BiosynthesisPhospholipid BiosynthesisPhosphatidylglycerol Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Glycine max, Limnanthes douglasii, Pisum sativum, Ricinus communis, Triticum aestivum, Vigna radiata radiata

Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria , Eukaryota

The plastid envelope, like the thylakoid membrane, is predominated by glycolipids. The only phospholipid found in chloroplast thylakoids is phosphatidylglycerol, which is critical for the structural and functional integrity of the thylakoid membranes.

The acyl donors for the two acyltransferase reactions leading to the formation of a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, the precursor of phosphatidylglycerol, can be either an acyl-ACP or an acyl-CoA, depending on the location of the pathway. In plants the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol can occur at three subcellular locations - chloroplast, mitochondrion and ER. In the plastid phosphatidylglycerol is assembled de novo from the newly synthesized fatty acids, and acyl-ACPs are the acyl donors [Xu06]. In the non-plastidic pathway (see phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic)) acyl-CoA are used as the acyl-donor [Moore82].

In Arabidopsis, this pathway accounts for about 85% of phosphatidylglycerol in the plastid.

Superpathways: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)

Subpathways: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II

Variants: phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic)

Created 29-Sep-2008 by Zhang P, TAIR


Moore82: Moore, Thomas S. Jr. (1982). "Phospholipid biosynthesis." Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 1982, 33: 235-259.

Xu06: Xu C, Yu B, Cornish AJ, Froehlich JE, Benning C (2006). "Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in acyl-ACP glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase." Plant J 47(2);296-309. PMID: 16774646

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Babiychuk03: Babiychuk E, Muller F, Eubel H, Braun HP, Frentzen M, Kushnir S (2003). "Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function." Plant J 33(5);899-909. PMID: 12609031

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Byers07: Byers DM, Gong H (2007). "Acyl carrier protein: structure-function relationships in a conserved multifunctional protein family." Biochem Cell Biol 85(6);649-62. PMID: 18059524

Chang67: Chang YY, Kennedy EP (1967). "Phosphatidyl glycerophosphate phosphatase." J Lipid Res 8(5);456-62. PMID: 4292860

Chen08a: Chen YQ, Kuo MS, Li S, Bui HH, Peake DA, Sanders PE, Thibodeaux SJ, Chu S, Qian YW, Zhao Y, Bredt DS, Moller DE, Konrad RJ, Beigneux AP, Young SG, Cao G (2008). "AGPAT6 is a novel microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 283(15);10048-57. PMID: 18238778

Clark80: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897

Coleman90: Coleman J (1990). "Characterization of Escherichia coli cells deficient in 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase activity." J Biol Chem 1990;265(28);17215-21. PMID: 2211622

COMMUNICATION: communication,

Douce72: Douce, Roland, Mannella, Carmen, Bonner, Walter D (1972). "Site of the biosynthesis of CDP-diglyceride in plant mitochondria." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Communications.

Dowhan92: Dowhan W (1992). "Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 1992;209;313-21. PMID: 1323047

Dowhan92a: Dowhan W, Funk CR (1992). "Phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase from Escherichia coli." Methods Enzymol 209;224-30. PMID: 1323035

Edgar78: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli fo sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid." J Biol Chem 1978;253(18);6348-53. PMID: 355254

Edgar78a: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 253(18);6354-63. PMID: 28326

Edgar79: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1979). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 1979;254(4);1016-21. PMID: 368067

Edgar80: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1980). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Further kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(8);3492-7. PMID: 6767719

Funk92: Funk CR, Zimniak L, Dowhan W (1992). "The pgpA and pgpB genes of Escherichia coli are not essential: evidence for a third phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase." J Bacteriol 1992;174(1);205-13. PMID: 1309518

Gopalakrishnan86: Gopalakrishnan AS, Chen YC, Temkin M, Dowhan W (1986). "Structure and expression of the gene locus encoding the phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1986;261(3);1329-38. PMID: 3003065

Green81: Green PR, Merrill AH, Bell RM (1981). "Membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Purification, reconstitution, and characterization of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 1981;256(21);11151-9. PMID: 7026564

Griebau94: Griebau R, Frentzen M (1994). "Biosynthesis of Phosphatidylglycerol in Isolated Mitochondria of Etiolated Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings." Plant Physiol 105(4);1269-1274. PMID: 12232283

Hirabayashi76: Hirabayashi T, Larson TJ, Dowhan W (1976). "Membrane-associated phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli: purification by substrate affinity chromatography on cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol sepharose." Biochemistry 1976;15(24);5205-11. PMID: 793612

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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