This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Fatty Acid and Lipid Biosynthesis → Phospholipid Biosynthesis → Phosphatidylglycerol Biosynthesis|
The plastid envelope, like the thylakoid membrane, is predominated by glycolipids. The only phospholipid found in chloroplast thylakoids is phosphatidylglycerol, which is critical for the structural and functional integrity of the thylakoid membranes.
The acyl donors for the two acyltransferase reactions leading to the formation of a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, the precursor of phosphatidylglycerol, can be either an acyl-ACP or an acyl-CoA, depending on the location of the pathway. In plants the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol can occur at three subcellular locations - chloroplast, mitochondrion and ER. In the plastid phosphatidylglycerol is assembled de novo from the newly synthesized fatty acids, and acyl-ACPs are the acyl donors [Xu06c]. In the non-plastidic pathway (see phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic)) acyl-CoA are used as the acyl-donor [Moore82].
In Arabidopsis, this pathway accounts for about 85% of phosphatidylglycerol in the plastid.
Superpathways: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis II (plants)
Subpathways: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II
Xu06c: Xu C, Yu B, Cornish AJ, Froehlich JE, Benning C (2006). "Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis in chloroplasts of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in acyl-ACP glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase." Plant J 47(2);296-309. PMID: 16774646
Babiychuk03: Babiychuk E, Muller F, Eubel H, Braun HP, Frentzen M, Kushnir S (2003). "Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function." Plant J 33(5);899-909. PMID: 12609031
Chen08b: Chen YQ, Kuo MS, Li S, Bui HH, Peake DA, Sanders PE, Thibodeaux SJ, Chu S, Qian YW, Zhao Y, Bredt DS, Moller DE, Konrad RJ, Beigneux AP, Young SG, Cao G (2008). "AGPAT6 is a novel microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 283(15);10048-57. PMID: 18238778
Clark80a: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897
Edgar78a: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1978). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 253(18);6354-63. PMID: 28326
Edgar79: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1979). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 1979;254(4);1016-21. PMID: 368067
Edgar80: Edgar JR, Bell RM (1980). "Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, a precursor of phospholipid. Further kinetic characterization of wild type and feedback-resistant forms of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(8);3492-7. PMID: 6767719
Funk92: Funk CR, Zimniak L, Dowhan W (1992). "The pgpA and pgpB genes of Escherichia coli are not essential: evidence for a third phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase." J Bacteriol 1992;174(1);205-13. PMID: 1309518
Gopalakrishnan86: Gopalakrishnan AS, Chen YC, Temkin M, Dowhan W (1986). "Structure and expression of the gene locus encoding the phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1986;261(3);1329-38. PMID: 3003065
Green81: Green PR, Merrill AH, Bell RM (1981). "Membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Purification, reconstitution, and characterization of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 1981;256(21);11151-9. PMID: 7026564
Griebau94: Griebau R, Frentzen M (1994). "Biosynthesis of Phosphatidylglycerol in Isolated Mitochondria of Etiolated Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings." Plant Physiol 105(4);1269-1274. PMID: 12232283
Hirabayashi76: Hirabayashi T, Larson TJ, Dowhan W (1976). "Membrane-associated phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli: purification by substrate affinity chromatography on cytidine 5'-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol sepharose." Biochemistry 1976;15(24);5205-11. PMID: 793612
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