MetaCyc Pathway: CO2 fixation into oxaloacetate (anaplerotic)
Traceable author statement to experimental supportInferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: CO2 fixation into oxaloacetate (anaplerotic)

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationC1 Compounds Utilization and AssimilationCO2 Fixation

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana col, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Delta H

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Viridiplantae

This anaplerotic pathway replenishes the intermediates of the TCA cycle.

EC, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), is an enzyme often associated with photosynthesis in C4 plants such as Zea mays (see C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NADP-ME type). However, in C3 plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, this enzyme plays a role in several processes such as replenishing depleted TCA cycle compounds that have been used for nitrogen assimilation or other tasks [Gennidakis07, Taylor10].

The enzyme, which is the major anaplerotic source for the replenishement of TCA cycle intermediates, achieves this function by fixing CO2 into oxaloacetate.

The pathway also plays an important part in some autotrophic bacteria and archaea such as the thermophilic methanogenic archaebacterium Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. The organism is an autotrophic anaerobe that can grow on a gas mixture of CO2 and H2 as its carbon and energy sources, respectively. One of the mechanisms by which the organism fixes CO2 is by pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay98].

The enzyme accepts only hydrogen carbonate molecules, which are catalytically produced from CO2 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase [Smith99a].

Variants: reductive monocarboxylic acid cycle

Created 24-Oct-2007 by Caspi R, SRI International
Reviewed 24-Oct-2007 by Tissier C, TAIR


Dey97: Dey, PM, Harborne, JB "Plant Biochemistry." Academic Press 1997.

Gennidakis07: Gennidakis S, Rao S, Greenham K, Uhrig RG, O'Leary B, Snedden WA, Lu C, Plaxton WC (2007). "Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase polypeptides interact in the hetero-oligomeric Class-2 PEPC complex of developing castor oil seeds." Plant J 52(5);839-49. PMID: 17894783

Mukhopadhyay98: Mukhopadhyay B, Stoddard SF, Wolfe RS (1998). "Purification, regulation, and molecular and biochemical characterization of pyruvate carboxylase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain deltaH." J Biol Chem 273(9);5155-66. PMID: 9478969

Sanchez06: Sanchez R, Flores A, Cejudo FJ (2006). "Arabidopsis phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase genes encode immunologically unrelated polypeptides and are differentially expressed in response to drought and salt stress." Planta 223(5);901-9. PMID: 16283377

Smith99a: Smith KS, Ferry JG (1999). "A plant-type (beta-class) carbonic anhydrase in the thermophilic methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum." J Bacteriol 181(20);6247-53. PMID: 10515911

Taylor10: Taylor L, Nunes-Nesi A, Parsley K, Leiss A, Leach G, Coates S, Wingler A, Fernie AR, Hibberd JM (2010). "Cytosolic pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase functions in nitrogen remobilization during leaf senescence and limits individual seed growth and nitrogen content." Plant J 62(4);641-52. PMID: 20202167

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Burnell90: Burnell JN (1990). "Immunological Study of Carbonic Anhydrase in C3 and C4 Plants Using Antibodies to Maize Cytosolic and Spinach Chloroplastic Carbonic Anhydrase." Plant Cell Physiol. 31(4):423-427.

Burnell97: Burnell JN, Ludwig M (1997). "Characterisation of Two cDNAs Encoding Carbonic Anhydrase in Maize Leaves." Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24(4):451-458.

Cavallaro94: Cavallaro A, Ludwig M, Burnell J (1994). "The nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA encoding Flaveria bidentis carbonic anhydrase." FEBS Lett 350(2-3);216-8. PMID: 8070567

delaFuente08: de la Fuente van Bentem S, Anrather D, Dohnal I, Roitinger E, Csaszar E, Joore J, Buijnink J, Carreri A, Forzani C, Lorkovic ZJ, Barta A, Lecourieux D, Verhounig A, Jonak C, Hirt H (2008). "Site-specific phosphorylation profiling of Arabidopsis proteins by mass spectrometry and peptide chip analysis." J Proteome Res 7(6);2458-70. PMID: 18433157

Fett94: Fett JP, Coleman JR (1994). "Characterization and expression of two cDNAs encoding carbonic anhydrase in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Physiol 105(2);707-13. PMID: 7520589

Guilloton92: Guilloton MB, Korte JJ, Lamblin AF, Fuchs JA, Anderson PM (1992). "Carbonic anhydrase in Escherichia coli. A product of the cyn operon." J Biol Chem 1992;267(6);3731-4. PMID: 1740425

Izui70: Izui K (1970). "Kinetic studies on the allosteric nature of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Escherichia coli." J Biochem 68(2);227-38. PMID: 4917116

Izui81: Izui K, Taguchi M, Morikawa M, Katsuki H (1981). "Regulation of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by multiple effectors in vivo. II. Kinetic studies with a reaction system containing physiological concentrations of ligands." J Biochem 90(5);1321-31. PMID: 7040354

Izui83: Izui K, Matsuda Y, Kameshita I, Katsuki H, Woods AE (1983). "Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. Inhibition by various analogs and homologs of phosphoenolpyruvate." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1983;94(6);1789-95. PMID: 6368527

Kai99: Kai Y, Matsumura H, Inoue T, Terada K, Nagara Y, Yoshinaga T, Kihara A, Tsumura K, Izui K (1999). "Three-dimensional structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: a proposed mechanism for allosteric inhibition." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(3);823-8. PMID: 9927652

Kameshita79: Kameshita I, Tokushige M, Izui K, Katsuki H (1979). "Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. Affinity labeling with bromopyruvate." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1979;86(5);1251-7. PMID: 42643

Keilin39: Keilin, D., Mann, T. (1939). "Carbonic anhydrase." Nature 144:442-443.

Kim94: Kim HJ, Bracey MH, Bartlett SG (1994). "Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding carbonic anhydrase in Arabidopsis thaliana." Plant Physiol 105(1);449. PMID: 8029363

Krall93: Krall, John, Edwards, Gerald (1993). "PEP Carboxylases from Two C4 Species of Panicum with Markedly DifferentSusceptibilities to Cold Inactivation." Plant Cell Physiol. 34(1): 1-11.

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Matsumura99: Matsumura H, Nagata T, Terada M, Shirakata S, Inoue T, Yoshinaga T, Ueno Y, Saze H, Izui K, Kai Y (1999). "Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of C4-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from maize." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 1999;55(11);1937-8. PMID: 10531501

Monti13: Monti SM, De Simone G, Dathan NA, Ludwig M, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Capasso C, Supuran CT (2013). "Kinetic and anion inhibition studies of a β-carbonic anhydrase (FbiCA 1) from the C4 plant Flaveria bidentis." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 23(6);1626-30. PMID: 23414801

Murakami87: Murakami H, Sly WS (1987). "Purification and characterization of human salivary carbonic anhydrase." J Biol Chem 262(3);1382-8. PMID: 2433278

Murmu03: Murmu J, Chinthapalli B, Raghavendra AS (2003). "Marked modulation by phosphate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a NAD-ME type C4 plant: decrease in malate sensitivity but no change in the phosphorylation status." J Exp Bot 54(393);2661-8. PMID: 14585826

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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