This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → C1 Compounds Utilization and Assimilation → CO2 Fixation|
This anaplerotic pathway replenishes the intermediates of the TCA cycle.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is an enzyme often associated with photosynthesis in C4 plants such as Zea mays (see C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NADP-ME type). However, in C3 plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, this enzyme plays a role in several processes such as replenishing depleted TCA cycle compounds that have been used for nitrogen assimilation or other tasks [Gennidakis07, Taylor10a].
The pathway also plays an important part in some autotrophic bacteria and archaea such as the thermophilic methanogenic archaebacterium Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. The organism is an autotrophic anaerobe that can grow on a gas mixture of CO2 and H2 as its carbon and energy sources, respectively. One of the mechanisms by which the organism fixes CO2 is by pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay98].
Variants: reductive monocarboxylic acid cycle
Gennidakis07: Gennidakis S, Rao S, Greenham K, Uhrig RG, O'Leary B, Snedden WA, Lu C, Plaxton WC (2007). "Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase polypeptides interact in the hetero-oligomeric Class-2 PEPC complex of developing castor oil seeds." Plant J 52(5);839-49. PMID: 17894783
Mukhopadhyay98: Mukhopadhyay B, Stoddard SF, Wolfe RS (1998). "Purification, regulation, and molecular and biochemical characterization of pyruvate carboxylase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain deltaH." J Biol Chem 273(9);5155-66. PMID: 9478969
Sanchez06a: Sanchez R, Flores A, Cejudo FJ (2006). "Arabidopsis phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase genes encode immunologically unrelated polypeptides and are differentially expressed in response to drought and salt stress." Planta 223(5);901-9. PMID: 16283377
Smith99a: Smith KS, Ferry JG (1999). "A plant-type (beta-class) carbonic anhydrase in the thermophilic methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum." J Bacteriol 181(20);6247-53. PMID: 10515911
Taylor10a: Taylor L, Nunes-Nesi A, Parsley K, Leiss A, Leach G, Coates S, Wingler A, Fernie AR, Hibberd JM (2010). "Cytosolic pyruvate,orthophosphate dikinase functions in nitrogen remobilization during leaf senescence and limits individual seed growth and nitrogen content." Plant J 62(4);641-52. PMID: 20202167
Burnell90: Burnell JN (1990). "Immunological Study of Carbonic Anhydrase in C3 and C4 Plants Using Antibodies to Maize Cytosolic and Spinach Chloroplastic Carbonic Anhydrase." Plant Cell Physiol. 31(4):423-427.
delaFuente08: de la Fuente van Bentem S, Anrather D, Dohnal I, Roitinger E, Csaszar E, Joore J, Buijnink J, Carreri A, Forzani C, Lorkovic ZJ, Barta A, Lecourieux D, Verhounig A, Jonak C, Hirt H (2008). "Site-specific phosphorylation profiling of Arabidopsis proteins by mass spectrometry and peptide chip analysis." J Proteome Res 7(6);2458-70. PMID: 18433157
Izui81: Izui K, Taguchi M, Morikawa M, Katsuki H (1981). "Regulation of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by multiple effectors in vivo. II. Kinetic studies with a reaction system containing physiological concentrations of ligands." J Biochem 90(5);1321-31. PMID: 7040354
Izui83: Izui K, Matsuda Y, Kameshita I, Katsuki H, Woods AE (1983). "Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. Inhibition by various analogs and homologs of phosphoenolpyruvate." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1983;94(6);1789-95. PMID: 6368527
Kai99: Kai Y, Matsumura H, Inoue T, Terada K, Nagara Y, Yoshinaga T, Kihara A, Tsumura K, Izui K (1999). "Three-dimensional structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: a proposed mechanism for allosteric inhibition." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(3);823-8. PMID: 9927652
Kameshita79: Kameshita I, Tokushige M, Izui K, Katsuki H (1979). "Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. Affinity labeling with bromopyruvate." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1979;86(5);1251-7. PMID: 42643
Matsumura99a: Matsumura H, Nagata T, Terada M, Shirakata S, Inoue T, Yoshinaga T, Ueno Y, Saze H, Izui K, Kai Y (1999). "Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of C4-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from maize." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 1999;55(11);1937-8. PMID: 10531501
Monti13: Monti SM, De Simone G, Dathan NA, Ludwig M, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Capasso C, Supuran CT (2013). "Kinetic and anion inhibition studies of a β-carbonic anhydrase (FbiCA 1) from the C4 plant Flaveria bidentis." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 23(6);1626-30. PMID: 23414801
Murmu03: Murmu J, Chinthapalli B, Raghavendra AS (2003). "Marked modulation by phosphate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a NAD-ME type C4 plant: decrease in malate sensitivity but no change in the phosphorylation status." J Exp Bot 54(393);2661-8. PMID: 14585826
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