This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Fatty Acid and Lipids Degradation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Rhodotorula bogoriensis
Expected Taxonomic Range: Fungi
Sophorosyloxydocosanoate is an extracellular glycolipid secreted by several yeasts including the ascomycete Starmerella bombicola (previously known as Candida bombicola) and the basidiomycete Rhodotorula bogoriensis (previously known as Candida bogoriensis ATCC 18809) [Nunez04][Fell00]. The function of this glycolipid is unknown, but glycolipids such as this are of interest for their biological activities and chemical properties. They are potentially useful in medical, cosmetic and chemical engineering applications. Chemical derivatives of biologically produced sophorolipids have been described [Singh03a].
Sophorolipids are relatively rare. They contain the glucose disaccharide sophorose, which has a glucosyl-β-(1,2)glucosyl linkage. sophorose is joined to a hydroxyl group of a hydroxy fatty acid aglycone (in [Esders72]). Analysis of the sophorolipids produced by Rhodotorula bogoriensis revealed des-, mono- and di-acetylated sophorose moieties, with the lipid in the free acid form. The majority of the hydroxy fatty acids had a chain length of 22 carbons, with <10% containing 24 carbons [Nunez04].
The biosynthesis of 13-sophorosyloxydocosanoate 6',6''-diacetate in Rhodotorula bogoriensis has been extensively studied by Light and co-workers (see MetaCyc pathway sophorolipid biosynthesis). They characterized three glycolipids produced by Rhodotorula bogoriensis cells as the diacetyl, monoacetyl and unacetylated forms of sophorosyloxydocosanoate. An in vivo time course of production of these glycolipids in relation to growth phase suggested that the diacetyl derivative is formed first and is a precursor of the mono- and unacetylated forms. This indicated removal of acetyl groups from the diacetyl form. The glycolipids disappeared from older cultures, suggesting that they were either incorporated into other molecules, or degraded [Esders72a].
A catabolic acetylesterase having 13-sophorysyloxydocosanoate 6',6''-diacetate acetylhydrolase (acetylesterase) activity was purified from Rhodotorula bogoriensis cell extracts and partially characterized. Although it had the required activity in vitro, its broad substrate specificity makes conclusions about its in vivo role uncertain. It may also participate in other reactions [Bucholtz76].
Bucholtz76: Bucholtz ML, Light RJ (1976). "Hydrolysis of 13-sophorosyloxydocosanoic acid esters by acetyl- and carboxylesterases isolated from Candida bororiensis." J Biol Chem 251(2);431-7. PMID: 1245482
Esders72a: Esders TW, Light RJ (1972). "Characterization and in vivo production of three glycolipids from Candida Bogoriensis: 13-glucopyranosylglucopyranosyloxydocosanoic acid and its mono- and diacetylated derivatives." J Lipid Res 13(5);663-71. PMID: 5075510
Fell00: Fell JW, Boekhout T, Fonseca A, Scorzetti G, Statzell-Tallman A (2000). "Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis." Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50 Pt 3;1351-71. PMID: 10843082
Nunez04: Nunez A, Ashby R, Foglia TA, Solaiman DK (2004). "LC/MS analysis and lipase modification of the sophorolipids produced by Rhodotorula bogoriensis." Biotechnol Lett 26(13);1087-93. PMID: 15218385
Singh03a: Singh SK, Felse AP, Nunez A, Foglia TA, Gross RA (2003). "Regioselective enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of sophorolipid esters, amides, and multifunctional monomers." J Org Chem 68(14);5466-77. PMID: 12839437
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