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MetaCyc Pathway: L-tryptophan biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Enzyme View:

Pathway diagram: L-tryptophan biosynthesis

This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-typtophan Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Arabidopsis thaliana colInferred from experiment [Li96a], Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Thermococcus kodakarensis, Thermotoga maritima

Expected Taxonomic Range: Archaea, Bacteria , Embryophyta, Fungi

Tryptophan biosynthesis in microbes involves five enzymes, encoded by 7 genes. The genes (trpA,B,C,D,E,F) are usually arranged in a single cluster [Crawford89], and form an operon whose transcription is negatively regulated by tryptophan [Yanofsky81]. Additional regulation mechanisms exist at the translational and post-translational levels, presumably because tryptophan synthesis is very expensive (78 mol ATP for each mol of tryptophan produced). In addition, hyperthermophilic organisms usually have an additional gene, trpB2, which is located outside of the tryptophan operon. This gene encodes an additional enzyme which is similar to a subunit of tryptophan synthase.

The two last steps in this pathway are catalyzed by a single enzyme, tryptophan synthase, which is composed of two α and two β subunits (E.C. reaction However, it has been shown that each of the subunits is responsible for catalyzing an individual step, and is able to catalyze that step on its own. Thus, the activity of tryptophan synthase was divided into two individual steps in the pathway, each catalyzed by the corresponding subunit.

Citations: [Yanofsky99, Yanofsky04 ]

Superpathways: superpathway of L-tryptophan biosynthesis, superpathway of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, superpathway of chorismate metabolism

Unification Links: AraCyc:TRPSYN-PWY, EcoCyc:TRPSYN-PWY

Last-Curated 12-Feb-2010 by Fulcher CA, SRI International


Crawford89: Crawford IP (1989). "Evolution of a biosynthetic pathway: the tryptophan paradigm." Annu Rev Microbiol 1989;43;567-600. PMID: 2679363

Li96a: Li J, Last RL (1996). "The Arabidopsis thaliana trp5 mutant has a feedback-resistant anthranilate synthase and elevated soluble tryptophan." Plant Physiol 110(1);51-9. PMID: 8587994

Yanofsky04: Yanofsky C (2004). "The different roles of tryptophan transfer RNA in regulating trp operon expression in E. coli versus B. subtilis." Trends Genet 20(8);367-74. PMID: 15262409

Yanofsky81: Yanofsky C (1981). "Attenuation in the control of expression of bacterial operons." Nature 289(5800);751-8. PMID: 7007895

Yanofsky99: Yanofsky, C., Miles, E., Bauerle, R., Kirschner, K. "TRP Operon." Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, ed. Thomas Creighton (1999), pp.2676-2689.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Adachi74: Adachi O, Kohn LD, Miles EW (1974). "Crystalline alpha2 beta2 complexes of tryptophan synthetase of Escherichia coli. A comparison between the native complex and the reconstituted complex." J Biol Chem 249(24);7756-63. PMID: 4609974

Adams14: Adams NE, Thiaville JJ, Proestos J, Juarez-Vazquez AL, McCoy AJ, Barona-Gomez F, Iwata-Reuyl D, de Crecy-Lagard V, Maurelli AT (2014). "Promiscuous and adaptable enzymes fill "holes" in the tetrahydrofolate pathway in Chlamydia species." MBio 5(4). PMID: 25006229

Akanuma05: Akanuma S, Miyagawa H, Kitamura K, Yamagishi A (2005). "A detailed unfolding pathway of a (beta/alpha)8-barrel protein as studied by molecular dynamics simulations." Proteins 58(3);538-46. PMID: 15614829

Akanuma08: Akanuma S, Yamagishi A (2008). "Experimental evidence for the existence of a stable half-barrel subdomain in the (beta/alpha)8-barrel fold." J Mol Biol 382(2);458-66. PMID: 18674541

Andreotti94: Andreotti G, Tutino ML, Sannia G, Marino G, Cubellis MV (1994). "Indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus as a model for studying thermostable TIM-barrel enzymes." Biochim Biophys Acta 1208(2);310-5. PMID: 7947963

Bairoch93a: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Baker66: Baker TI, Crawford IP (1966). "Anthranilate synthetase. Partial purification and some kinetic studies on the enzyme from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 241(23);5577-84. PMID: 5333199

Bang83: Bang WG, Lang S, Sahm H, Wagner F (1983). "Production L-tryptophan by Escherichia coli cells." Biotechnol Bioeng 25(4);999-1011. PMID: 18548715

Bartholmes76: Bartholmes P, Kirschner K, Gschwind HP (1976). "Cooperative and noncooperative binding of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to tryptophan synthase from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 15(21);4712-7. PMID: 788781

Beasty86: Beasty AM, Hurle MR, Manz JT, Stackhouse T, Onuffer JJ, Matthews CR (1986). "Effects of the phenylalanine-22----leucine, glutamic acid-49----methionine, glycine-234----aspartic acid, and glycine-234----lysine mutations on the folding and stability of the alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 25(10);2965-74. PMID: 2872918

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Byrnes00: Byrnes WM, Goldberg RN, Holden MJ, Mayhew MP, Tewari YB (2000). "Thermodynamics of reactions catalyzed by anthranilate synthase." Biophys Chem 84(1);45-64. PMID: 10723544

Caligiuri91: Caligiuri MG, Bauerle R (1991). "Subunit communication in the anthranilate synthase complex from Salmonella typhimurium." Science 252(5014);1845-8. PMID: 2063197

Choi95: Choi SG, Hardman JK (1995). "Unfolding properties of tryptophan-containing alpha-subunits of the Escherichia coli tryptophan synthase." J Biol Chem 270(47);28177-82. PMID: 7499309

Christie80: Christie GE, Platt T (1980). "Gene structure in the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence of trpC and the flanking intercistronic regions." J Mol Biol 1980;142(4);519-30. PMID: 7007653

CRAWFORD60: CRAWFORD IP (1960). "Identification of the triose phosphate formed in the tryptophan synthetase reaction." Biochim Biophys Acta 45;405-7. PMID: 13696310

Creighton66: Creighton TE, Yanofsky C (1966). "Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli, an enzyme of the tryptophan operon." J Biol Chem 241(20);4616-24. PMID: 5332729

Creighton70: Creighton TE (1970). "N-(5'-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase-indol-3-ylglycerol phosphate synthetase of tryptophan biosynthesis. Relationship between the two activities of the enzyme from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 120(4);699-707. PMID: 4924490

Darimont98: Darimont B, Stehlin C, Szadkowski H, Kirschner K (1998). "Mutational analysis of the active site of indoleglycerol phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli." Protein Sci 7(5);1221-32. PMID: 9605328

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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