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MetaCyc Protein: ATP synthase F1 complex

Species: Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Component of: ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase (extended summary available)

Subunit composition of ATP synthase F1 complex = [AtpC][AtpH][(AtpA)3][AtpG][(AtpD)3]
         ATP synthase F1 complex - epsilon subunit = AtpC (summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex - delta subunit = AtpH (summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = (AtpA)3 (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = AtpA
         ATP synthase F1 complex - gamma subunit = AtpG (summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = (AtpD)3 (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = AtpD

Summary:
The F1 complex of ATP synthase contains the catalytic sites. The complex consists of five subunits, each of which is required for activity [Senior90, Futai89]. The positive catalytic cooperativity of ATP hydrolysis by the F1 complex has been studied [Bulygin09].

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Credits:
Imported from EcoCyc 10-Sep-2013 by Paley S , SRI International


Subunit of: ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase

Synonyms: ATP synthase F0F1, ATP synthase F1F0

Species: Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Subunit composition of ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase = [([AtpE]10)([AtpF]2)(AtpB)][(AtpC)(AtpH)([AtpA]3)(AtpG)([AtpD]3)]
         ATP synthase F0 complex = ([AtpE]10)([AtpF]2)(AtpB) (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F0 complex - subunit c = (AtpE)10
                 ATP synthase F0 complex - b subunit = (AtpF)2 (extended summary available)
                         ATP synthase F0 complex - b subunit = AtpF
                 ATP synthase F0 complex - a subunit = AtpB (extended summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex = (AtpC)(AtpH)([AtpA]3)(AtpG)([AtpD]3) (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - epsilon subunit = AtpC (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - delta subunit = AtpH (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = (AtpA)3 (summary available)
                         ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = AtpA
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - gamma subunit = AtpG (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = (AtpD)3 (summary available)
                         ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = AtpD

Summary:
ATP synthase (also known as F0F1 synthase) catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) under aerobic and anaerobic cell growth. ATP synthase uses the free energy derived from the transmembrane proton gradient to drive ATP synthesis (see review by [Senior88] and references therein). During fermentation ATP synthase functions in the reverse direction and catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to generate the electrochemical proton gradient needed for other membrane functions (see review by [Trchounian04] and references therein). ATP synthase is a rotary molecular nanomotor that couples the mechanical force of subunit rotation to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP at the enzyme's catalytic sites. Proton movement across the membrane generates subunit rotation which drives ATP synthesis by forcing sequential conformation change at each of the three catalytic sites.

ATP synthase is comprised of two subcomplexes known as F1 and F0 (see review by [Senior90] and references therein). The hydrophilic F1 complex consists of five subunits (α, β, γ, δ and ε) in a stoichiometry of 3:3:1:1:1. The F1 complex contains three catalytic sites located in the three α/β subunit pairs. The F0 complex is membrane-embedded and forms the proton channel through the membrane. This complex consists of three subunits (a, b and c) in a stoichiometry of 1:2:10. Functionally, ATP synthase may be considered tripartite, consisting of a rotor (γεc10), a rotor stalk or stator (b2δ) and three catalytic sites (α3β3) where ATP synthesis or hydrolysis occurs (see review by [Senior02] and comment by [Senior07]).

'Tri-site' and 'bi-site' modes of enzyme catalysis have been proposed [Cross81, Weber01, Boyer01]. Tri-site catalysis requires that all three catalytic sites are occupied and interact with each other; in bi-site catalysis the enzyme functions with two substrate filled catalytic sites.

Additional reviews: [Senior92, Weber03, Boyer93, Weber, Senior12]

Citations: [Wachter11, Wiedenmann09, BekeSomfai11, DAlessandro08, Kasimoglu96, Kol08, Cain89, Vik91]

Locations: membrane

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0045259 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex

Credits:
Imported from EcoCyc 10-Sep-2013 by Paley S , SRI International


Enzymatic reaction of: ATP synthase

Synonyms: F-1F-0-type ATPase, ATP phosphohydrolase (H+-transporting), H+-transporting ATP synthase, F0F1-type ATP synthase, adenosinetriphosphatase, H+-transporting ATPase, proton translocating ATP synthase, F-type ATP synthase

Alternative Substrates for ADP: GDP , IDP

Alternative Substrates for ATP: GTP , ITP

Credits:
Imported from EcoCyc 16-Sep-2014 by Paley S , SRI International

Summary:
The H+/ATP ratio reflects the number of protons transported for every molecule of ATP synthesized. Based on a model of rotational catalysis for ATP synthase the H+/ATP ratio is equal to the c/β subunit stoichiometric ratio which for E. coli K-12 is 3.3 (c103) [Jiang01a]. A thermodynamic H+/ATP ratio of 4 for E. coli ATP synthase has been experimentally determined [Steigmiller08] and this value is used in the above equation. Dihydrogen phosphate is likely to be the phosphate donor during ATP synthesis [alShawi92].

Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: Mg2+

Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): citreoviridin [Senior90] , aurovertin [Senior90] , quercetin [Dadi09] , trans-resveratrol [Dadi09] , fluoroaluminate [Senior90] , 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole [Senior90] , dicyclohexylcarbodiimide [Senior90] , efrapeptin [Senior90]


Enzymatic reaction of: thiamin triphosphate synthase

Credits:
Imported from EcoCyc 16-Sep-2014 by Paley S , SRI International


Subunit of ATP synthase F1 complex: ATP synthase F1 complex - epsilon subunit

Synonyms: UncC, PapG, AtpC

Gene: atpC Accession Numbers: EG10100 (MetaCyc), b3731, ECK3724

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Sequence Length: 139 AAs

Molecular Weight: 15.068 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 5.73

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006754 - ATP biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006811 - ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0015986 - ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015992 - proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0042777 - plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Hauser14, Rajagopala14, Butland05]
GO:0046933 - proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, Klionsky84]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
GO:0046961 - proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0045261 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Klionsky84]
GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism energy metabolism, carbon ATP proton motive force interconversion
transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The H+- or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase (F-ATPase) Su

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-47828N , EcoliWiki:b3731 , PR:PRO_000022188 , Pride:P0A6E6 , Protein Model Portal:P0A6E6 , RefSeq:NP_418187 , SMR:P0A6E6 , String:511145.b3731 , UniProt:P0A6E6

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001469 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020546 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020547 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR13822 , PDB:Structure:1AQT , PDB:Structure:1BSH , PDB:Structure:1BSN , PDB:Structure:1FS0 , PDB:Structure:1QO1 , PDB:Structure:3OAA , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00401 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02823 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD000944

Summary:
The epsilon subunit appears to play an important role in coupling the catalytic site events with proton translocation in association with the gamma subunit. The coupling involves conformational changes and probable translocations of one or both subunits. This subunit is also required for binding of the F1 complex to the F0 complex. [Tang96a, Senior90]

Citations: [Iino09]


Subunit of ATP synthase F1 complex: ATP synthase F1 complex - delta subunit

Synonyms: UncH, PapE, AtpH

Gene: atpH Accession Numbers: EG10105 (MetaCyc), b3735, ECK3728

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Sequence Length: 177 AAs

Molecular Weight: 19.332 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 5.11

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006754 - ATP biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006811 - ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0015986 - ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015992 - proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0042777 - plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
Molecular Function: GO:0046933 - proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, Humbert83]
GO:0046961 - proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred from experiment [Humbert83]
Cellular Component: GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Lasserre06]
GO:0045261 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Humbert83]
GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism energy metabolism, carbon ATP proton motive force interconversion
transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The H+- or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase (F-ATPase) Su

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-47921N , EcoliWiki:b3735 , ModBase:P0ABA4 , PR:PRO_000022193 , Pride:P0ABA4 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABA4 , RefSeq:NP_418191 , SMR:P0ABA4 , String:511145.b3735 , UniProt:P0ABA4

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000711 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020781 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR026015 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11910 , PDB:Structure:1ABV , PDB:Structure:2A7U , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00213 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00125 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00389

Summary:
The delta subunit is required for binding the F1 complex to the F0 complex. It may also block proton conduction through the F0 complex. [Engelbrecht90, Xiao94]


Subunit of ATP synthase F1 complex: ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit

Synonyms: papA, uncA

Gene: atpA Accession Numbers: EG10098 (MetaCyc), b3734, ECK3727

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Subunit composition of ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = [AtpA]3
         ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = AtpA

Map Position: [3,916,339 <- 3,917,880]

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 55.222 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 6.16

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015986 - ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Butlin71]
GO:0006754 - ATP biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006811 - ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0015991 - ATP hydrolysis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015992 - proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0042777 - plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
GO:0046034 - ATP metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Huang06a, Lasserre06, Arifuzzaman06, Stenberg05, Butland05]
GO:0000166 - nucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06, GOA01]
GO:0016787 - hydrolase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016820 - hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of substances Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0046933 - proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01]
GO:0046961 - proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Lasserre06]
GO:0045261 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Kanazawa78]
GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
GO:0033178 - proton-transporting two-sector ATPase complex, catalytic domain Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism energy metabolism, carbon ATP proton motive force interconversion
transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The H+- or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase (F-ATPase) Su

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-31845N , EcoliWiki:b3734 , Mint:MINT-1251537 , ModBase:P0ABB0 , PR:PRO_000022186 , Pride:P0ABB0 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABB0 , RefSeq:NP_418190 , SMR:P0ABB0 , String:511145.b3734 , Swiss-Model:P0ABB0 , UniProt:P0ABB0

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000194 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000793 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004100 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005294 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018538 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020003 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023366 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027417 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR15184:SF3 , PDB:Structure:1D8S , PDB:Structure:3OAA , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00006 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00306 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF09378 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00152

Summary:
The α-subunit plays an essential role in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme and in the binding and coupling between the F1 and F0 complexes. The α-subunit also contains an adenine-specific binding site which is noncatalytic, nonregulatory and not essential for enzyme assembly in vitro. Its function has not yet been determined. The α-subunit complex is a homotrimer [Rao88].

A hydrogen-bonding network is formed at the closed α/β-subunit interface of F1 [Abrahams94]. Elimination of this network results in a severely impaired enzyme. A possible role for the hydrogen-bonding network in coupling of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and rotation has been proposed [Mao08]. The role of conserved residues surrounding the catalytic site has been studied [Li09a].

Citations: [Salcedo14]


Subunit of ATP synthase F1 complex: ATP synthase F1 complex - gamma subunit

Synonyms: UncG, PapC, AtpG

Gene: atpG Accession Numbers: EG10104 (MetaCyc), b3733, ECK3726

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Sequence Length: 287 AAs

Molecular Weight: 31.577 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 8.96

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006754 - ATP biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006811 - ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0015986 - ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015992 - proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0042777 - plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Hauser14, Rajagopala14, Butland05]
GO:0046933 - proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01, Futai77]
GO:0046961 - proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01, Futai77]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
Cellular Component: GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Lasserre06]
GO:0045261 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01, Klionsky85]
GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism energy metabolism, carbon ATP proton motive force interconversion
transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The H+- or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase (F-ATPase) Su

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-35938N , EcoliWiki:b3733 , ModBase:P0ABA6 , PR:PRO_000022192 , Pride:P0ABA6 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABA6 , RefSeq:NP_418189 , SMR:P0ABA6 , String:511145.b3733 , UniProt:P0ABA6

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000131 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023632 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023633 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11693 , PDB:Structure:1D8S , PDB:Structure:1FS0 , PDB:Structure:3OAA , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00231 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00126 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00153

Summary:
The gamma subunit appears to play an important role in coupling the catalytic site events with proton translocation in association with the epsilon subunit. The coupling involves conformational changes and probable translocations of one or both subunits [Tang96a].

The rate limiting rotation step carried out by this subunit has been investigated and residues involved in this rotation process have been identified [Scanlon08].

ArcA appears to repress atpG gene expression under anaerobiosis. Two putative ArcA binding sites were identified upstream of this gene [Salmon05], but no promoter upstream of it has been identified. Instead, atpG is transcribed from three promoters: one of them is located usptream of atpI gene and the others are located upstream of atpB gene.


Subunit of ATP synthase F1 complex: ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit

Synonyms: papB, uncD

Gene: atpD Accession Numbers: EG10101 (MetaCyc), b3732, ECK3725

Locations: cytosol, inner membrane

Subunit composition of ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = [AtpD]3
         ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = AtpD

Map Position: [3,914,016 <- 3,915,398]

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 50.325 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 5.1

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006754 - ATP biosynthetic process Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0006811 - ion transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0015986 - ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015991 - ATP hydrolysis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0015992 - proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA01]
GO:0042777 - plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06]
GO:0046034 - ATP metabolic process Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Rajagopala14, Huang06a, Lasserre06, Arifuzzaman06, Stenberg05, Butland05]
GO:0046961 - proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred from experiment [Senior79]
GO:0000166 - nucleotide binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0005524 - ATP binding Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, GOA06, GOA01]
GO:0016787 - hydrolase activity Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11]
GO:0016820 - hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of substances Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]
GO:0046933 - proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism Inferred by computational analysis [GOA06, GOA01]
Cellular Component: GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Lasserre06]
GO:0045261 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, Senior79]
GO:0005829 - cytosol
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, UniProtGOA11, GOA06]
GO:0033178 - proton-transporting two-sector ATPase complex, catalytic domain Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
metabolism energy metabolism, carbon ATP proton motive force interconversion
transport Channel-type Transporters Pyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active Transporters The H+- or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase (F-ATPase) Su

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-31846N , EcoliWiki:b3732 , Mint:MINT-1251407 , PR:PRO_000022189 , Pride:P0ABB4 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABB4 , RefSeq:NP_418188 , SMR:P0ABB4 , String:511145.b3732 , Swiss-Model:P0ABB4 , UniProt:P0ABB4

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000194 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000793 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003593 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004100 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005722 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020003 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR024034 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027417 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR15184:SF8 , PDB:Structure:1D8S , PDB:Structure:3OAA , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00006 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00306 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02874 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00152 , Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM00382

Summary:
The beta subunit contains the catalytic site. The complex is a homotrimer [Iwamoto91, Senior90]. The role of conserved residues surrounding the catalytic site has been studied [Li09a].


References

Abrahams94: Abrahams JP, Leslie AG, Lutter R, Walker JE (1994). "Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria." Nature 370(6491);621-8. PMID: 8065448

alShawi92: al-Shawi MK, Senior AE (1992). "Catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Characterization of unisite catalysis at varied pH." Biochemistry 31(3);878-85. PMID: 1531027

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

BekeSomfai11: Beke-Somfai T, Lincoln P, Norden B (2011). "Double-lock ratchet mechanism revealing the role of alphaSER-344 in FoF1 ATP synthase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(12);4828-33. PMID: 21383131

Boyer01: Boyer PD (2001). "Toward an adequate scheme for the ATP synthase catalysis." Biochemistry (Mosc) 66(10);1058-66. PMID: 11736627

Boyer93: Boyer PD (1993). "The binding change mechanism for ATP synthase--some probabilities and possibilities." Biochim Biophys Acta 1140(3);215-50. PMID: 8417777

Bulygin09: Bulygin VV, Milgrom YM (2009). "A bi-site mechanism for Escherichia coli F1-ATPase accounts for the observed positive catalytic cooperativity." Biochim Biophys Acta 1787(8);1016-23. PMID: 19269272

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Butlin71: Butlin JD, Cox GB, Gibson F (1971). "Oxidative phosphorylation in Escherichia coli K12. Mutations affecting magnesium ion- or calcium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase." Biochem J 124(1);75-81. PMID: 4256722

Cain89: Cain BD, Simoni RD (1989). "Proton translocation by the F1F0ATPase of Escherichia coli. Mutagenic analysis of the a subunit." J Biol Chem 264(6);3292-300. PMID: 2536742

Cross81: Cross RL (1981). "The mechanism and regulation of ATP synthesis by F1-ATPases." Annu Rev Biochem 50;681-714. PMID: 6455964

Dadi09: Dadi PK, Ahmad M, Ahmad Z (2009). "Inhibition of ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by polyphenols." Int J Biol Macromol 45(1);72-9. PMID: 19375450

DAlessandro08: D'Alessandro M, Turina P, Melandri BA (2008). "Intrinsic uncoupling in the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1777(12);1518-1527. PMID: 18952048

Engelbrecht90: Engelbrecht S, Junge W (1990). "Subunit delta of H(+)-ATPases: at the interface between proton flow and ATP synthesis." Biochim Biophys Acta 1015(3);379-90. PMID: 2154253

Futai77: Futai M (1977). "Reconstitution of ATPase activity from the isolated alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of the coupling factor, F1, of Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 79(4);1231-7. PMID: 146491

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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