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MetaCyc Polypeptide: succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, membrane protein SdhD

Gene: sdhD Accession Numbers: EG10934 (MetaCyc), b0722, ECK0711

Synonyms: cybS, dhsD, small subunit of cytochrome b556

Species: Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Component of:
succinate:quinone oxidoreductase subcomplex
succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (extended summary available)

One of two membrane proteins in the four subunit enzyme. SdhC and SdhD are the large and small subunits of cytochrome b556, respectively [Nakamura96].

The b556 type heme bridges both membrane subunits [Maklashina99, Nakamura96]. Published reports disagree about whether mutation of SdhC-[His84] or SdhD-[His71] residues eliminate coordination of the heme b [Maklashina01, Vibat98]. Mutation of the residues coordinating the heme indicate that the heme helps stabilize the enzyme [Maklashina01]. SdhC-[His84] is involved in interaction with the quinone electron acceptor [Maklashina01]. SdhC-[His84] and SdhD-[His71] (with the associated heme b) are reported to be dispensable for assembly, while SdhC-[His30] is required for proper assembly of the membrane-bound enzyme [Vibat98].

Mutants lacking SdhC and SdhD show cytoplasmic succinate dehydrogenase activity using artificial electron acceptors, in contrast to wild-type membrane-associated succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity [Nakamura96, Neidhardt96].

Despite similar function, hydrophobicity, and protein size, the SdhC and SdhD subunits of succinate dehydrogenase do not share significant sequence identity with the corresponding membrane-binding subunits of fumarate reductase, FrdC and FrdD [Wood84].

sdhD is one of a network of genes believed to play a role in promoting the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) response of E. coli K-12 [Al12].

Regulation has been described [Masse02, Takeda99, Cunningham98, Shen97, Park97, Xu95a, Park95, Iuchi94, Silverman91, Iuchi89, Wilde86, Darlison84a, Shen97].

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [754,783 -> 755,130]

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 12.868 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0002464, CGSC:17899, DIP:DIP-10838N, EchoBASE:EB0927, EcoGene:EG10934, EcoliWiki:b0722, ModBase:P0AC44, OU-Microarray:b0722, PortEco:sdhD, PR:PRO_000023921, Pride:P0AC44, Protein Model Portal:P0AC44, RefSeq:NP_415250, RegulonDB:EG10934, SMR:P0AC44, String:511145.b0722, UniProt:P0AC44

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000701, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014312, PDB:Structure:1NEK, PDB:Structure:1NEN, PDB:Structure:2ACZ, PDB:Structure:2AD0, PDB:Structure:2WDQ, PDB:Structure:2WDR, PDB:Structure:2WDV, PDB:Structure:2WP9, PDB:Structure:2WS3, PDB:Structure:2WU2, PDB:Structure:2WU5, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01127

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred from experimentGO:0009060 - aerobic respiration [Park95]
Inferred from experimentGO:0017004 - cytochrome complex assembly [Vibat98]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006099 - tricarboxylic acid cycle [UniProtGOA12, UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0055114 - oxidation-reduction process [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0009055 - electron carrier activity [Cecchini03]
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0020037 - heme binding [GOA01a, Vibat98]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0000104 - succinate dehydrogenase activity [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0008177 - succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity [GOA01]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016627 - oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0046872 - metal ion binding [UniProtGOA11a]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0005886 - plasma membrane [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, DiazMejia09, Zhang07, Daley05]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016020 - membrane [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016021 - integral component of membrane [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]

MultiFun Terms: cell structuremembrane
metabolismbiosynthesis of macromolecules (cellular constituents)large molecule carrierscytochromes
metabolismenergy metabolism, carbonaerobic respiration
metabolismenergy metabolism, carbonTCA cycle
metabolismenergy production/transportelectron donors

Imported from EcoCyc 30-Sep-2015 by Paley S, SRI International

Subunit of: succinate:quinone oxidoreductase subcomplex

Synonyms: SQR

Species: Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Subunit composition of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase subcomplex = [SdhA][SdhB][SdhC][SdhD]
         succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, FAD binding protein = SdhA (summary available)
         succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, iron-sulfur cluster binding protein = SdhB (summary available)
         succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, membrane protein SdhC = SdhC (summary available)
         succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, membrane protein SdhD = SdhD (extended summary available)

Component of: succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (extended summary available)

Locations: inner membrane

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:1NEN, PDB:Structure:2ACZ, PDB:Structure:2WDQ, PDB:Structure:2WDR, PDB:Structure:2WDV

GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred from experimentGO:0009060 - aerobic respiration [Hirsch63, Park95]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006099 - tricarboxylic acid cycle [GOA00, GOA01a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred by computational analysisInferred from experimentGO:0000104 - succinate dehydrogenase activity [Hirsch63, GOA01, Kita89]
Inferred by computational analysisInferred from experimentGO:0009055 - electron carrier activity [Cheng06, GOA01a]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0031224 - intrinsic component of membrane [GOA00, Kita89]
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0045257 - succinate dehydrogenase complex (ubiquinone) [GOA01, Kita89]
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane [Kita89]

Revised in EcoCyc 15-Apr-2008 by Nolan L, Macquarie University
Imported from EcoCyc 30-Sep-2015 by Paley S, SRI International

Subunit of: succinate:quinone oxidoreductase

Synonyms: complex II, succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, SQR, SdhCDAB, succinate dehydrogenase, succinate-Q reductase

Species: Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Subunit composition of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase = [(SdhA)(SdhB)(SdhC)(SdhD)]3
         succinate:quinone oxidoreductase subcomplex = (SdhA)(SdhB)(SdhC)(SdhD)
                 succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, FAD binding protein = SdhA (summary available)
                 succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, iron-sulfur cluster binding protein = SdhB (summary available)
                 succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, membrane protein SdhC = SdhC (summary available)
                 succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, membrane protein SdhD = SdhD (extended summary available)

Succinate dehydrogenase or succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) catalyses the oxidation of succinate to fumarate concomitant with the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol. SQR plays an important role in cellular metabolism and directly connects the the TCA cycle with the respiratory electron transport chain. As part of the TCA cycle succinate is oxidized to fumarate by SQR and electrons are transferred to the membrane quinone pool for entry into the electron transport chain. SQR does not contribute to the proton motive force (pmf); the sites of quinol reduction and succinate oxidation are both located on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and there is no separation of charge across the membrane during catalysis (see [Simon08]).

E.coli SQR (SdhCDAB) is a membrane bound heterotetramer [Kita89]. Subunits SdhA and SdhB are hydrophilic and attached to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane via interactions with the two hydrophobic integral membrane subunits, SdhC and SdhD. SdhA contains the FAD cofactor [Brandsch89] and the dicarboxylic acid binding site [Yankovskaya03]. Electrons from the oxidation of succinate are transferred through the iron-sulphur protein, SdhB, to a quinone binding site located at the interface of the SdhB, SdhC and SdhD subunits [Tran06]. The SdhC and SdhD subunits each contain three transmembrane helices and anchor the complex to the membrane. A single heme b556 cofactor bridges the SdhC and SdhD subunits [Nakamura96]. Crystal structures and electrophoretic and spectrometric analyses indicate that E. coli SQH is organised into a trimeric supercomplex [Yankovskaya03, Sousa11].

SQR is structurally and functionally related to fumarate reductase or menaquinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) which catalyses the reduction of fumarate to succinate under anaerobic conditions. The functions of SQR and QFR are partially interchangeable - a plasmid containing the frd genes is able to compensate for the growth deficiency of an sdh mutant [Guest81] while anaerobic expression of succinate dehyrdogenase supports the growth of an frd mutant [Maklashina98]. The SQR redox centres are arranged in a manner that aids the prevention of reactive oxygen species, providing a likely reason for the expression of SQR during aerobic respiration rather than QFR (which promotes high levels of oxygen radicals) [Yankovskaya03].

The sdhCDAB operon is expressed from a single promoter located upstream of sdhC [Park95, Park97]. sdhCDAB is optimally expressed during aerobic cell growth. Expression of the operon decreases substantially when cells are shifted to anaerobic growth [Shen97]. Negative control occurs by a repression mechanism due to binding of ArcA at the sdhC promoter [Iuchi89, Iuchi94]. The sdh operon is also catabolite controlled, gene expression varies when cells are grown aerobically with different compounds [Park95].

Crystal structures of E. coli SQR with an empty quinone binding site and with the quinone binding site occupied by various inhibitors have been determined [Yankovskaya03, Ruprecht09, Horsefield06].

E. coli SQR has a high degree of structural and functional similarity to mammalian SQR (complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) [Hagerhall97]

Reviews: [Cecchini02, Gunsalus, Hagerhall96].
Comment: [Hederstedt03]

Citations: [Ohnishi87, Condon85 , Creaghan78, Spencer74, ZhdanPushkina86, Wood84, Darlison84a, Pershad99, Hederstedt81, Wilde86, Nihei01 , Vibat98 , Maklashina01, Yang98a, Yang97, Tornroth02, Barker00, Maklashina99, Tomasiak08, Shimizu08]

Created in EcoCyc 07-Dec-2014 by Mackie A, Macquarie University
Imported from EcoCyc 30-Sep-2015 by Paley S, SRI International

Enzymatic reaction of: succinate:quinone oxidoreductase

Inferred from experiment

Transport reaction diagram for succinate:quinone oxidoreductase

In Pathways: superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass, superpathway of glyoxylate bypass and TCA, TCA cycle I (prokaryotic), succinate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer, succinate to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer

Imported from EcoCyc 30-Sep-2015 by Paley S, SRI International

Citations: [Hederstedt81, Ohnishi87]

Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster, a [3Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster, a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster, ferroheme b [Kita78], FAD [Brandsch89, Kita89]

Inhibitors (Competitive): a 2-alkyl-dinitrophenol derivative, menaquinone-1, malonate [Maklashina99], pentachlorophenol [Maklashina99] Inhibitors (Other): carboxin [Maklashina99]

Primary Physiological Regulators of Enzyme Activity: malonate

Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Transmembrane-Region 16 -> 36
Author statement[UniProt15]
UniProt: Helical.
Transmembrane-Region 59 -> 80
Author statement[UniProt15]
UniProt: Helical.
Metal-Binding-Site 71
Author statement[UniProt15]
UniProt: Iron (heme axial ligand); shared with second transmembrane subunit.
Amino-Acid-Sites-That-Bind 83
Inferred from experiment[Yankovskaya03]
UniProt: Ubiquinone.
Transmembrane-Region 91 -> 115
Author statement[UniProt15]
UniProt: Helical.

10/20/97 Gene b0722 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10934; confirmed by SwissProt match.


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GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

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Gunsalus: Gunsalus RP, Park SJ "Aerobic-anaerobic gene regulation in Escherichia coli: control by the ArcAB and Fnr regulons." Res Microbiol 145(5-6);437-50. PMID: 7855430

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Hirsch63: Hirsch CA, Rasminsky M, Davis BD, Lin EC (1963). "A fumarate reductase in Escherichia coli distinct from succinate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 238;3770-4. PMID: 14109218

Horsefield06: Horsefield R, Yankovskaya V, Sexton G, Whittingham W, Shiomi K, Omura S, Byrne B, Cecchini G, Iwata S (2006). "Structural and computational analysis of the quinone-binding site of complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase): a mechanism of electron transfer and proton conduction during ubiquinone reduction." J Biol Chem 281(11);7309-16. PMID: 16407191

Iuchi89: Iuchi S, Cameron DC, Lin EC (1989). "A second global regulator gene (arcB) mediating repression of enzymes in aerobic pathways of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 171(2);868-73. PMID: 2644240

Iuchi94: Iuchi S, Aristarkhov A, Dong JM, Taylor JS, Lin EC (1994). "Effects of nitrate respiration on expression of the Arc-controlled operons encoding succinate dehydrogenase and flavin-linked L-lactate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 1994;176(6);1695-701. PMID: 8132465

Kita78: Kita K, Yamato I, Anraku Y (1978). "Purification and properties of cytochrome b556 in the respiratory chain of aerobically grown Escherichia coli K12." J Biol Chem 253(24);8910-5. PMID: 363711

Kita89: Kita K, Vibat CR, Meinhardt S, Guest JR, Gennis RB (1989). "One-step purification from Escherichia coli of complex II (succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) associated with succinate-reducible cytochrome b556." J Biol Chem 264(5);2672-7. PMID: 2644269

Maklashina01: Maklashina E, Rothery RA, Weiner JH, Cecchini G (2001). "Retention of heme in axial ligand mutants of succinate-ubiquinone xxidoreductase (complex II) from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 276(22);18968-76. PMID: 11259408

Maklashina98: Maklashina E, Berthold DA, Cecchini G (1998). "Anaerobic expression of Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase: functional replacement of fumarate reductase in the respiratory chain during anaerobic growth." J Bacteriol 180(22);5989-96. PMID: 9811659

Maklashina99: Maklashina E, Cecchini G (1999). "Comparison of catalytic activity and inhibitors of quinone reactions of succinate dehydrogenase (Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and fumarate reductase (Menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1999;369(2);223-32. PMID: 10486141

Masse02: Masse E, Gottesman S (2002). "A small RNA regulates the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(7);4620-5. PMID: 11917098

Nakamura96: Nakamura K, Yamaki M, Sarada M, Nakayama S, Vibat CR, Gennis RB, Nakayashiki T, Inokuchi H, Kojima S, Kita K (1996). "Two hydrophobic subunits are essential for the heme b ligation and functional assembly of complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 271(1);521-7. PMID: 8550613

Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Nihei01: Nihei C, Nakayashiki T, Nakamura K, Inokuchi H, Gennis RB, Kojima S, Kita K (2001). "Abortive assembly of succinate-ubiquinone reductase (complex II) in a ferrochelatase-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli." Mol Genet Genomics 265(3);394-404. PMID: 11405622

Ohnishi87: Ohnishi T "Structure of the succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex II)." Current Topics in Bioenergetics 1987;15:37-65.

Park06: Park YJ, Yoo CB, Choi SY, Lee HB (2006). "Purifications and characterizations of a ferredoxin and its related 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus P1." J Biochem Mol Biol 39(1);46-54. PMID: 16466637

Park95: Park SJ, Tseng CP, Gunsalus RP (1995). "Regulation of succinate dehydrogenase (sdhCDAB) operon expression in Escherichia coli in response to carbon supply and anaerobiosis: role of ArcA and Fnr." Mol Microbiol 15(3);473-82. PMID: 7783618

Park97: Park SJ, Chao G, Gunsalus RP (1997). "Aerobic regulation of the sucABCD genes of Escherichia coli, which encode alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl coenzyme A synthetase: roles of ArcA, Fnr, and the upstream sdhCDAB promoter." J Bacteriol 179(13);4138-42. PMID: 9209026

Pershad99: Pershad HR, Hirst J, Cochran B, Ackrell BA, Armstrong FA (1999). "Voltammetric studies of bidirectional catalytic electron transport in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase: comparison with the enzyme from beef heart mitochondria." Biochim Biophys Acta 1412(3);262-72. PMID: 10482788

Ruprecht09: Ruprecht J, Yankovskaya V, Maklashina E, Iwata S, Cecchini G (2009). "Structure of Escherichia coli succinate:quinone oxidoreductase with an occupied and empty quinone-binding site." J Biol Chem 284(43);29836-46. PMID: 19710024

Shen97: Shen J, Gunsalus RP (1997). "Role of multiple ArcA recognition sites in anaerobic regulation of succinate dehydrogenase (sdhCDAB) gene expression in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 26(2);223-36. PMID: 9383149

Shimizu08: Shimizu H, Nihei C, Inaoka DK, Mogi T, Kita K, Harada S (2008). "Screening of detergents for solubilization, purification and crystallization of membrane proteins: a case study on succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli." Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 64(Pt 9);858-62. PMID: 18765923

Silverman91: Silverman PM, Rother S, Gaudin H (1991). "Arc and Sfr functions of the Escherichia coli K-12 arcA gene product are genetically and physiologically separable." J Bacteriol 173(18);5648-52. PMID: 1885542

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Spencer74: Spencer ME, Guest JR (1974). "Proteins of the inner membrane of Escherichia coli: identification of succinate dehydrogenase by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sdh amber mutants." J Bacteriol 117(3);947-53. PMID: 4591960

Takeda99: Takeda S, Matsushika A, Mizuno T (1999). "Repression of the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase in response to glucose is mediated by the EIICB(Glc) protein in Escherichia coli." J Biochem (Tokyo) 126(2);354-60. PMID: 10423529

Tomasiak08: Tomasiak TM, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Iverson TM (2008). "A threonine on the active site loop controls transition state formation in Escherichia coli respiratory complex II." J Biol Chem 283(22);15460-8. PMID: 18385138

Tornroth02: Tornroth S, Yankovskaya V, Cecchini G, Iwata S (2002). "Purification, crystallisation and preliminary crystallographic studies of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1553(1-2);171-6. PMID: 11803025

Tran06: Tran QM, Rothery RA, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Weiner JH (2006). "The quinone binding site in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase is required for electron transfer to the heme b." J Biol Chem 281(43);32310-7. PMID: 16950775

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-08 released on 2015-07-22." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."

Vibat98: Vibat CR, Cecchini G, Nakamura K, Kita K, Gennis RB (1998). "Localization of histidine residues responsible for heme axial ligation in cytochrome b556 of complex II (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 37(12);4148-59. PMID: 9521736

Wilde86: Wilde RJ, Guest JR (1986). "Transcript analysis of the citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase genes of Escherichia coli K12." J Gen Microbiol 1986;132 ( Pt 12);3239-51. PMID: 3309132

Wood84: Wood D, Darlison MG, Wilde RJ, Guest JR (1984). "Nucleotide sequence encoding the flavoprotein and hydrophobic subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1984;222(2);519-34. PMID: 6383359

Xu95a: Xu J, Johnson RC (1995). "Identification of genes negatively regulated by Fis: Fis and RpoS comodulate growth-phase-dependent gene expression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 177(4);938-47. PMID: 7860604

Yang97: Yang X, Yu L, Yu CA (1997). "Resolution and reconstitution of succinate-ubiquinone reductase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 272(15);9683-9. PMID: 9092498

Yang98a: Yang X, Yu L, He D, Yu CA (1998). "The quinone-binding site in succinate-ubiquinone reductase from Escherichia coli. Quinone-binding domain and amino acid residues involved in quinone binding." J Biol Chem 273(48);31916-23. PMID: 9822661

Yankovskaya03: Yankovskaya V, Horsefield R, Tornroth S, Luna-Chavez C, Miyoshi H, Leger C, Byrne B, Cecchini G, Iwata S (2003). "Architecture of succinate dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen species generation." Science 299(5607);700-4. PMID: 12560550

Zhang07: Zhang N, Chen R, Young N, Wishart D, Winter P, Weiner JH, Li L (2007). "Comparison of SDS- and methanol-assisted protein solubilization and digestion methods for Escherichia coli membrane proteome analysis by 2-D LC-MS/MS." Proteomics 7(4);484-93. PMID: 17309111

ZhdanPushkina86: Zhdan-Pushkina SM, Verbitskaia NB, Kondrat'eva LD (1986). "[Succinate dehydrogenase activity of Escherichia coli cells after heat stress and during the reparative process]." Mikrobiologiia 55(3);357-61. PMID: 3528770

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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