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MetaCyc Reaction: 6.3.1.2

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number: 6.3.1.2

Enzymes and Genes:

Arabidopsis thaliana col :
Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 : glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : glnA
Haloferax mediterranei : glutamine synthetase, type IV Inferred from experiment
Homo sapiens : glutamine synthetase, type II Inferred from experiment : GLUL
Neurospora crassa :
Ruminococcus albus 8 : glutamine synthetase, type III Inferred from experiment : gluN
Saccharomyces cerevisiae : glutamine synthetase, type II Inferred from experiment : GLN1
Solanum lycopersicum : cytosolic glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : GS1
Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 :

In Pathway: nitrate reduction II (assimilatory) , L-glutamine biosynthesis III , L-glutamine biosynthesis I , ammonia assimilation cycle I , ammonia assimilation cycle II , nitrate reduction VI (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction V (assimilatory)

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: glutamate—ammonia ligase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: glutamine synθse, glutamylhydroxamic synθse, L-glutamine synθse

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -6.7717896 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
Also acts, more slowly, on 4-methylene-L-glutamate (cf. EC 6.3.1.7 4-methyleneglutamate—ammonia ligase).

Citations: [Woolfolk66, LAJTHA53, FRY55, ELLIOTT53]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Unification Links: KEGG:R00253 , Rhea:16169

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:6.3.1.2 , ENZYME:EC:6.3.1.2 , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:6.3.1.2 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O04998 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O04999 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O22504 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O22505 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O22506 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O66514 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O75014 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P00964 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P00965 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04078 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04770 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04771 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04772 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P05457 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P07694 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P07804 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P08281 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P08282 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P09606 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P09826 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P0A1P6 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P0A9C5 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P0A040 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P10583 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P10656 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P11600 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P12424 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P12425 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P13564 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14636 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14654 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14655 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14656 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15102 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15103 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15105 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15106 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15124 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15623 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P16580 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P19064 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P19432 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P19904 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P20479 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P21154 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P22248 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P22878 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P23712 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P23794 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P24099 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P25462 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P28786 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P31592 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P32288 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38559 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38560 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38561 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38562 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38563 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P43386 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P43518 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P43794 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P45627 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P46410 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P51118 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P51119 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P52783 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q7M314 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q8X7G0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9C8C7 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9CDL9 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9FHR0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9JSU6 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9PPK8 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9RDW7 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9UWN1 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q02154 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q04831 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q05542 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q05650 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q07939 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q27747 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42623 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42624 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42625 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42688 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42689 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42802 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42950 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42951 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43066 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43127 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43759 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43760 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q53045 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q59195 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q59972 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q59982 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q60182


References

ELLIOTT53: ELLIOTT WH (1953). "Isolation of glutamine synthetase and glutamotransferase from green peas." J Biol Chem 201(2);661-72. PMID: 13061404

FRY55: FRY BA (1955). "Glutamine synthesis by Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus." Biochem J 59(4);579-89. PMID: 14363150

LAJTHA53: LAJTHA A, MELA P, WAELSCH H (1953). "Manganese-dependent glutamotransferase." J Biol Chem 205(2);553-64. PMID: 13129232

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Woolfolk66: Woolfolk CA, Shapiro B, Stadtman ER (1966). "Regulation of glutamine synthetase. I. Purification and properties of glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 116(1);177-92. PMID: 5336023


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Tue May 5, 2015, biocyc13.