Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Reaction: 6.3.1.2

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number: 6.3.1.2

Enzymes and Genes:
glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : glnA ( Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 )
cytosolic glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : GS1 ( Solanum lycopersicum )
glutamine synthetase, type III Inferred from experiment : glnN ( Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 )
glutamine synthetase, type IV : glnT ( Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 )
glutamine synthetase, type I Inferred from experiment : glnA ( Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 )
glutamine synthetase, type II (octamer) Inferred from experiment : gln-1 ( Neurospora crassa )
glutamine synthetase, type II (tetramer) Inferred from experiment : gln-1 ( Neurospora crassa )
glutamine synthetase, type III Inferred from experiment : gluN ( Ruminococcus albus 8 )
glutamine synthetase, type IV Inferred from experiment ( Haloferax mediterranei )
glutamine synthetase, type II Inferred from experiment : GLUL ( Homo sapiens )
glutamine synthetase, type II Inferred from experiment : GLN1 ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )
glutamine synthetase, type II Inferred from experiment : GLN2 ( Arabidopsis thaliana col )
glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : GLN1;4 ( Arabidopsis thaliana col )
glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : GLN1;3 ( Arabidopsis thaliana col )
glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : GLN1;2 ( Arabidopsis thaliana col )
glutamine synthetase Inferred from experiment : GLN1;1 ( Arabidopsis thaliana col )

In Pathway: nitrate reduction II (assimilatory) , glutamine biosynthesis III , glutamine biosynthesis I , ammonia assimilation cycle I , ammonia assimilation cycle II , nitrate reduction VI (assimilatory) , nitrate reduction V (assimilatory)

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: glutamate—ammonia ligase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: glutamine synθse, glutamylhydroxamic synθse, L-glutamine synθse

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): -6.7717896 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
Also acts, more slowly, on 4-methylene-L-glutamate (cf. EC 6.3.1.7 4-methyleneglutamate—ammonia ligase).

Citations: [Woolfolk66, LAJTHA53, FRY55, ELLIOTT53]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Unification Links: KEGG:R00253 , Rhea:16169

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:6.3.1.2 , ENZYME:EC:6.3.1.2 , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:6.3.1.2 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O04998 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O04999 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O22504 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O22505 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O22506 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O66514 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:O75014 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P00964 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P00965 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04078 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04770 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04771 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P04772 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P05457 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P07694 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P07804 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P08281 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P08282 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P09606 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P09826 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P0A1P6 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P0A9C5 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P0A040 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P10583 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P10656 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P11600 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P12424 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P12425 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P13564 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14636 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14654 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14655 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P14656 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15102 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15103 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15105 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15106 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15124 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P15623 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P16580 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P19064 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P19432 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P19904 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P20479 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P21154 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P22248 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P22878 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P23712 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P23794 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P24099 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P25462 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P28786 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P31592 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P32288 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38559 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38560 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38561 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38562 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P38563 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P43386 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P43518 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P43794 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P45627 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P46410 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P51118 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P51119 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:P52783 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q7M314 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q8X7G0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9C8C7 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9CDL9 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9FHR0 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9JSU6 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9PPK8 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9RDW7 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q9UWN1 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q02154 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q04831 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q05542 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q05650 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q07939 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q27747 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42623 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42624 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42625 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42688 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42689 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42802 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42950 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q42951 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43066 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43127 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43759 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q43760 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q53045 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q59195 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q59972 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q59982 , UniProt:RELATED-TO:Q60182


References

ELLIOTT53: ELLIOTT WH (1953). "Isolation of glutamine synthetase and glutamotransferase from green peas." J Biol Chem 201(2);661-72. PMID: 13061404

FRY55: FRY BA (1955). "Glutamine synthesis by Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus." Biochem J 59(4);579-89. PMID: 14363150

LAJTHA53: LAJTHA A, MELA P, WAELSCH H (1953). "Manganese-dependent glutamotransferase." J Biol Chem 205(2);553-64. PMID: 13129232

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Woolfolk66: Woolfolk CA, Shapiro B, Stadtman ER (1966). "Regulation of glutamine synthetase. I. Purification and properties of glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 116(1);177-92. PMID: 5336023


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Dec 29, 2014, BIOCYC15B.