|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
EC Number: 22.214.171.1245
Enzymes and Genes:
|Aspergillus niger :||D-galacturonate reductase
|Euglena gracilis Z :||D-galacturonate reductase
|Trichoderma reesei :||D-galacturonate reductase
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.
Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Enzyme Commission Primary Name: D-galacturonate reductase
Enzyme Commission Synonyms: GalUR, gar1 (gene name)
Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG'° in kcal/mol): 1.2935791 [Latendresse13]
Enzyme Commission Summary:
The enzyme from plants is involved in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis [Isherwood56, Agius03]. The enzyme from the fungus Trichoderma reesei is involved in a eukaryotic degradation pathway of D-galacturonate. It is also active with D-glucuronate and glyceraldehyde [Kuorelahti05]. Neither enzyme shows any activity with NADH.
Unification Links: Rhea:26348
Agius03: Agius F, Gonzalez-Lamothe R, Caballero JL, Munoz-Blanco J, Botella MA, Valpuesta V (2003). "Engineering increased vitamin C levels in plants by overexpression of a D-galacturonic acid reductase." Nat Biotechnol 21(2);177-81. PMID: 12524550
Isherwood56: Isherwood FA, Mapson LW (1956). "Biological synthesis of ascorbic acid: the conversion of derivatives of D-galacturonic acid into L-ascorbic acid by plant extracts." Biochem J 64(1);13-22. PMID: 13363799
Ishikawa06: Ishikawa T, Masumoto I, Iwasa N, Nishikawa H, Sawa Y, Shibata H, Nakamura A, Yabuta Y, Shigeoka S (2006). "Functional characterization of D-galacturonic acid reductase, a key enzyme of the ascorbate biosynthesis pathway, from Euglena gracilis." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(11);2720-6. PMID: 17090924
Kuorelahti05: Kuorelahti S, Kalkkinen N, Penttila M, Londesborough J, Richard P (2005). "Identification in the mold Hypocrea jecorina of the first fungal D-galacturonic acid reductase." Biochemistry 44(33);11234-40. PMID: 16101307
MartensUzunova08: Martens-Uzunova ES, Schaap PJ (2008). "An evolutionary conserved d-galacturonic acid metabolic pathway operates across filamentous fungi capable of pectin degradation." Fungal Genet Biol 45(11);1449-57. PMID: 18768163
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