MetaCyc Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:

Aspergillus niger : D-galacturonate reductase Inferred from experiment : GAAA
Euglena gracilis Z : D-galacturonate reductase Inferred from experiment
Trichoderma reesei : D-galacturonate reductase Inferred from experiment : GAR1

In Pathway: D-galacturonate degradation III , L-ascorbate biosynthesis V

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: D-galacturonate reductase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: GalUR, gar1 (gene name)

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): 1.2935791 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
The enzyme from plants is involved in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis [Isherwood56, Agius03]. The enzyme from the fungus Trichoderma reesei is involved in a eukaryotic degradation pathway of D-galacturonate. It is also active with D-glucuronate and glyceraldehyde [Kuorelahti05]. Neither enzyme shows any activity with NADH.

Citations: [Ishikawa06, MartensUzunova08]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Unification Links: Rhea:26348

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC: , ENZYME:EC: , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:

Created 07-Jan-2010 by Fulcher CA , SRI International


Agius03: Agius F, Gonzalez-Lamothe R, Caballero JL, Munoz-Blanco J, Botella MA, Valpuesta V (2003). "Engineering increased vitamin C levels in plants by overexpression of a D-galacturonic acid reductase." Nat Biotechnol 21(2);177-81. PMID: 12524550

Isherwood56: Isherwood FA, Mapson LW (1956). "Biological synthesis of ascorbic acid: the conversion of derivatives of D-galacturonic acid into L-ascorbic acid by plant extracts." Biochem J 64(1);13-22. PMID: 13363799

Ishikawa06: Ishikawa T, Masumoto I, Iwasa N, Nishikawa H, Sawa Y, Shibata H, Nakamura A, Yabuta Y, Shigeoka S (2006). "Functional characterization of D-galacturonic acid reductase, a key enzyme of the ascorbate biosynthesis pathway, from Euglena gracilis." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(11);2720-6. PMID: 17090924

Kuorelahti05: Kuorelahti S, Kalkkinen N, Penttila M, Londesborough J, Richard P (2005). "Identification in the mold Hypocrea jecorina of the first fungal D-galacturonic acid reductase." Biochemistry 44(33);11234-40. PMID: 16101307

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

MartensUzunova08: Martens-Uzunova ES, Schaap PJ (2008). "An evolutionary conserved d-galacturonic acid metabolic pathway operates across filamentous fungi capable of pectin degradation." Fungal Genet Biol 45(11);1449-57. PMID: 18768163

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Sun Oct 4, 2015, BIOCYC14A.