Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Reaction: 1.1.1.365

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number: 1.1.1.365

Enzymes and Genes:
D-galacturonate reductase Inferred from experiment : GAAA ( Aspergillus niger )
D-galacturonate reductase Inferred from experiment : GAR1 ( Trichoderma reesei )
D-galacturonate reductase Inferred from experiment ( Euglena gracilis Z )

In Pathway: D-galacturonate degradation III , L-ascorbate biosynthesis V

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: D-galacturonate reductase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: GalUR, gar1 (gene name)

Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG in kcal/mol): 1.2935791 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Enzyme Commission Summary:
The enzyme from plants is involved in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis [Isherwood56, Agius03]. The enzyme from the fungus Trichoderma reesei is involved in a eukaryotic degradation pathway of D-galacturonate. It is also active with D-glucuronate and glyceraldehyde [Kuorelahti05]. Neither enzyme shows any activity with NADH.

Citations: [Ishikawa06, MartensUzunova08]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Unification Links: Rhea:26348

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:1.1.1.365 , ENZYME:EC:1.1.1.365 , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:1.1.1.365

Credits:
Created 07-Jan-2010 by Fulcher CA , SRI International


References

Agius03: Agius F, Gonzalez-Lamothe R, Caballero JL, Munoz-Blanco J, Botella MA, Valpuesta V (2003). "Engineering increased vitamin C levels in plants by overexpression of a D-galacturonic acid reductase." Nat Biotechnol 21(2);177-81. PMID: 12524550

Isherwood56: Isherwood FA, Mapson LW (1956). "Biological synthesis of ascorbic acid: the conversion of derivatives of D-galacturonic acid into L-ascorbic acid by plant extracts." Biochem J 64(1);13-22. PMID: 13363799

Ishikawa06: Ishikawa T, Masumoto I, Iwasa N, Nishikawa H, Sawa Y, Shibata H, Nakamura A, Yabuta Y, Shigeoka S (2006). "Functional characterization of D-galacturonic acid reductase, a key enzyme of the ascorbate biosynthesis pathway, from Euglena gracilis." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(11);2720-6. PMID: 17090924

Kuorelahti05: Kuorelahti S, Kalkkinen N, Penttila M, Londesborough J, Richard P (2005). "Identification in the mold Hypocrea jecorina of the first fungal D-galacturonic acid reductase." Biochemistry 44(33);11234-40. PMID: 16101307

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

MartensUzunova08: Martens-Uzunova ES, Schaap PJ (2008). "An evolutionary conserved d-galacturonic acid metabolic pathway operates across filamentous fungi capable of pectin degradation." Fungal Genet Biol 45(11);1449-57. PMID: 18768163


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Thu Nov 27, 2014, BIOCYC14B.