|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
EC Number: 22.214.171.124
In Pathway: norspermidine biosynthesis
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.
Most BioCyc compounds have been protonated to a reference pH value of 7.3, and some reactions have been computationally balanced for hydrogen by adding free protons. Please see the PGDB Concepts Guide for more information.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Enzyme Commission Primary Name: carboxynorspermidine synthase
Enzyme Commission Synonyms: carboxynorspermidine dehydrogenase, carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase, CASDH, CANSDH, VC1624 (gene name)
Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG'° in kcal/mol): 4.280487 [Latendresse13]
Enzyme Commission Summary:
The reaction takes place in the opposite direction. Part of a bacterial polyamine biosynthesis pathway. L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde and propane-1,3-diamine/putrescine form a Schiff base that is reduced to form carboxynorspermidine/carboxyspermidine, respectively [Nakao91]. The enzyme from the bacterium Vibrio cholerae is essential for biofilm formation [Lee09c]. The enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni only produces carboxyspermidine in vivo even though it also can produce carboxynorspermidine in vitro [Hanfrey11].
Hanfrey11: Hanfrey CC, Pearson BM, Hazeldine S, Lee J, Gaskin DJ, Woster PM, Phillips MA, Michael AJ (2011). "Alternative spermidine biosynthetic route is critical for growth of Campylobacter jejuni and is the dominant polyamine pathway in human gut microbiota." J Biol Chem 286(50);43301-12. PMID: 22025614
Lee09c: Lee J, Sperandio V, Frantz DE, Longgood J, Camilli A, Phillips MA, Michael AJ (2009). "An alternative polyamine biosynthetic pathway is widespread in bacteria and essential for biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae." J Biol Chem 284(15);9899-907. PMID: 19196710
Nakao91: Nakao H, Shinoda S, Yamamoto S (1991). "Purification and some properties of carboxynorspermidine synthase participating in a novel biosynthetic pathway for norspermidine in Vibrio alginolyticus." J Gen Microbiol 137(7);1737-42. PMID: 1955861
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