|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
Enzymes and Genes:
|Arabidopsis thaliana col :||15-cis-phytoene desaturase
|Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 :||15-cis phytoene desaturase
In Pathway: trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (plants)
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG'° in kcal/mol): 24.23999 [Latendresse13]
This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria. The enzyme from Synechococcus can also use NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme from Gentiana lutea shows no activity with NAD+ or NADP+ [Breitenbach01].
This is one of two reactions catalyzed successively by the enzyme. The overall reaction is
Breitenbach01: Breitenbach J, Zhu C, Sandmann G (2001). "Bleaching herbicide norflurazon inhibits phytoene desaturase by competition with the cofactors." J Agric Food Chem 49(11);5270-2. PMID: 11714315
Breitenbach05: Breitenbach J, Sandmann G (2005). "zeta-Carotene cis isomers as products and substrates in the plant poly-cis carotenoid biosynthetic pathway to lycopene." Planta 220(5);785-93. PMID: 15503129
Fraser93: Fraser PD, Linden H, Sandmann G (1993). "Purification and reactivation of recombinant Synechococcus phytoene desaturase from an overexpressing strain of Escherichia coli." Biochem J 291 ( Pt 3);687-92. PMID: 8489496
Schneider97b: Schneider C, Boger P, Sandmann G (1997). "Phytoene desaturase: heterologous expression in an active state, purification, and biochemical properties." Protein Expr Purif 10(2);175-9. PMID: 9226712
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