|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
Enzymes and Genes:
|Arabidopsis thaliana col:||15-cis-phytoene desaturase: PDS|
|Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942:||15-cis phytoene desaturase: pds|
In Pathway: trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (plants)
The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Standard Gibbs Free Energy (ΔrG'° in kcal/mol): 24.23999 [Latendresse13]
This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria. The enzyme from Synechococcus can also use NAD+ and NADP+ as electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The enzyme from Gentiana lutea shows no activity with NAD+ or NADP+ [Breitenbach01].
This is one of two reactions catalyzed successively by the enzyme. The overall reaction is
Breitenbach01: Breitenbach J, Zhu C, Sandmann G (2001). "Bleaching herbicide norflurazon inhibits phytoene desaturase by competition with the cofactors." J Agric Food Chem 49(11);5270-2. PMID: 11714315
Breitenbach05: Breitenbach J, Sandmann G (2005). "zeta-Carotene cis isomers as products and substrates in the plant poly-cis carotenoid biosynthetic pathway to lycopene." Planta 220(5);785-93. PMID: 15503129
Fraser93: Fraser PD, Linden H, Sandmann G (1993). "Purification and reactivation of recombinant Synechococcus phytoene desaturase from an overexpressing strain of Escherichia coli." Biochem J 291 ( Pt 3);687-92. PMID: 8489496
Schneider97c: Schneider C, Boger P, Sandmann G (1997). "Phytoene desaturase: heterologous expression in an active state, purification, and biochemical properties." Protein Expr Purif 10(2);175-9. PMID: 9226712
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