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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.

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MetaCyc Release Notes History

This document summarizes the release history of MetaCyc.

 

MetaCyc Statistics by Year
2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 Description
Metabolic Pathways 2255 2097 1928 1790 1642 1436 1203 1010 800 692 528 491 460 445 Number of metabolic pathways, excluding superpathways
Reactions 12074 11409 10481 9609 8988 8248 7312 6576 5871 5520 4955 4858 4294 4218 Number of biochemical reactions
Enzymes 10100 9148 8426 7611 6912 6056 5127 4582 3527 3029 1940 1618 1267 1115 Number of enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions
Genes 10187 9119 8317 7509 6675 5709 4748 4161 3630 2931 1821 1673 600 0 Number of genes
Chemical Compounds 11681 10965 10157 9277 8869 8363 7234 6561 5254 4817 3551 3029 2404 2335 Number of chemical compounds
Organisms 2579 2460 2362 2216 2072 1834 1549 1077 729 601 302 222 174 158 The number of distinct taxa that pathways in MetaCyc are labeled to occur in [more]
Citations 43818 37570 36796 31145 26848 21713 17916 15875 10658 8599 5050 3619 2718 2381 Number of distinct references cited within MetaCyc

Note: The statistics for each year pertain to the last MetaCyc version released in that year.
NA = Not available.
Click here for information on the taxonomic distribution of MetaCyc pathways.

 

Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 18.5

Released on Nov 07, 2014

The text contained within the mini-review summaries for MetaCyc pathway, enzyme, and metabolite pages is the equivalent of 6,300 textbook pages. This information was curated from 44,000 publications.

New and Updated Pathways

We have added 58[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 24 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 82 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 7 were contributed by EcoCyc curators and 6 were contributed by HumanCyc curators. We also added one new superpathway.

Microbial Metabolism: We have added a number of bacterial biosynthetic pathways including a new variant of heme biosynthesis characterized in archaea and Desulfovibrionales, a pathway for the biosynthesis of heme d1, which is only made by denitrifying bacteria with a cytochrome nitrite reductase cd1 (nirS), a pathway for production of a disaccharide present in the O-antigen of the pathogens Escherichia coli O5 and E. coli O104, which produce Shiga-like toxins, a pathway for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin, a red linear tripyrrole antibiotic produced by some strains of Serratia and related species, and a new variant of folate biosynthesis that operates in Chlamydia. We also added biosynthetic pathways found in Bacilli for the anti-fungal antibiotics rhizocticin A and rhizocticin B that contain the non-proteinogenic amino acid L-2-amino-5-phosphono-3-cis-pentenoate, and for mannojirimycin, an intermediate in the pathway leading to nojirimycin antibiotics. Other pathways describe the synthesis of the thiooctose moiety of the antibiotic lincomycin A, the synthesis of a 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone moiety found in many secondary metabolites, and the polyketide pigments flaviolin dimer and mompain that protect organisms from ultraviolet radiation. Additional biosynthetic pathways were added for cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in Xanthomonas, a sialic acid derivative found in the fish pathogen Allivibrio salmonicida, and a second archaeal variant of the mevalonate pathway.

In bacterial degradation we curated a pathway for dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol degradation, one of the major dilignols generated in lignifying xylem, and a tyrosine degradation pathway in gut clostridia that produces 4-methylphenol. This compound is sulfated in the liver of the bacterium's animal host to toxic 4-methylphenyl sulfate. We also added novel pathways for trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline degradation found in Azospirillum brasilense and degradation of the sugar acid L-lyxonate found in some bacteria. Other new pathways include degradation of the widespread pollutant 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol and the surfactant-derived compound 3-(4-sulfophenyl)butyrate.

In fungal metabolism we added the biosynthesis of lovastatin, one of the major cholesterol-lowering drugs that inhibits EC 1.1.1.34, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, the biosynthesis of ergothioneine, a histidine derivative that contains a thiol group and a trimethylated amine that is produced only by fungi, the degradation of glutathione in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an arginase-independent pathway for L-arginine degradation found in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

Additional fungal pathways include the biosynthesis of the indole-diterpene aflatrem by Aspergillus flavus, the diterpenoid brassicicene C by the phytopathogen Alternaria brassicicola, the quinone compound atromentin that has anti-HIV properties, (-)-microperfuranone, which is found in terrestrial and marine fungi, and gliotoxin from the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Although gliotoxin appears to be a virulence factor, it has anticancer and antiviral properties. We also included a pathway for gliotoxin inactivation in this organism that prevents autointoxication. More additions include curated pathways for some fungal peptidyl alkaloid mycotoxins that have medicinal value, including the antitumor compound terrequinone A, the anticancer compounds fumitremorgin A, fumitremorgin C, and 5-N-acetylardeemin, the mycotoxic alkaloid acetylaszonalenin, the antibacterial and antifungal compound fumiquinazoline, the cholycystokinin inhibitor asperlicin E, and α-cyclopiazonate, a mycotoxin co-occurring with aflatoxin. We also added a detoxification pathway for α-cyclopiazonate in domesticated Aspergillus oryzae.

Animal Metabolism: We added a new variant of the methionine salvage cycle that operates in higher eukaryotes and involves polyamine biosynthesis, and a pathway for the synthesis of diphthamide, a unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue found only in the translation elongation factor 2 of archaea and eukaryotes. Other new animal pathways include mammalian variants of coenzyme A biosynthesis, and the degradation of L-asparagine and purine deoxyribonucleosides. We also curated pathways for the biosynthesis of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, a potent metabolic regulator, and homocarnosine, a dipeptide found in mammalian brain and muscle that protects against oxidative stress and may be neuromodulatory. A pathway depicting the enzymes involved in the degradation of reactive oxygen species was also added.

Plant Metabolism: Two new plant secondary metabolite pathways involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids were added to MetaCyc. Chelerythrine is a member of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids that occur in four families of the order Ranunculales and has a broad range of antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anticancer properties. The rare tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloid R-canadine is found exclusively in the Papaveracae. It has been used in folk medicine and has therapeutic potential for dyspepsia.

Other Improvements

Update of EC Reactions:

During this quarter we have updated the Enzyme Commission (EC) definitions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of September 2014) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB) and the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), available from the ExplorEnz database.

Engineered Pathways:

We added an engineered pathway for the production of propane-1,2-diol (1,2-PDO) from lactate. 1,2-PDO is widely used in the production of unsaturated polyester resin and as a nontoxic replacement for ethylene glycol.

List of New and Updated Pathways

New Pathways
  • 1,2-propanediol biosynthesis from lactate (engineered)
  • 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone biosynthesis
  • 3-(4-sulfophenyl)butyrate degradation
  • 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol degradation
  • 5-N-acetylardeemin biosynthesis
  • 6-hydroxymethyl-dihydropterin diphosphate biosynthesis III (Chlamydia)
  • α-cyclopiazonate biosynthesis
  • α-cyclopiazonate detoxification
  • acetylaszonalenin biosynthesis
  • aflatrem biosynthesis
  • arginine degradation XII
  • asperlicin E biosynthesis
  • atromentin biosynthesis
  • β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine biosynthesis
  • brassicicene C biosynthesis
  • cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis (Xanthomonas)
  • chelerythrine biosynthesis
  • CMP-N-acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis
  • dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol degradation
  • diphthamide biosynthesis (eukaryotes)
  • ergothioneine biosynthesis II (fungi)
  • flaviolin dimer and mompain biosynthesis
  • fumiquinazoline D biosynthesis
  • fumitremorgin A biosynthesis
  • fumitremorgin C biosynthesis
  • gliotoxin biosynthesis
  • gliotoxin inactivation
  • glutathione degradation (DUG pathway - yeast)
  • heme d1 biosynthesis
  • heme biosynthesis III (from siroheme)
  • L-lyxonate degradation
  • lovastatin biosynthesis
  • mannojirimycin biosynthesis
  • methionine salvage cycle I (bacteria and plants)
  • methionine salvage cycle III (animals)
  • methylerythritol phosphate pathway II
  • methylthiolincosamide biosynthesis
  • mevalonate pathway III (archaea)
  • (-)-microperfuranone biosynthesis
  • prodigiosin biosynthesis
  • (R)-canadine biosynthesis
  • rhizocticin A and B biosynthesis
  • terrequinone A biosynthesis
  • trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline degradation
  • tyrosine degradation IV (to 4-methylphenol)

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • D-lactate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transport
  • glycerol-3-phosphate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer
  • glycerol-3-phosphate to fumarate electron transfer
  • NADH to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transport II
  • NADH to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer II
  • pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transfer
  • pyruvate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer

    New Pathways from HumanCyc

  • asparagine degradation III (mammalian)
  • coenzyme A biosynthesis II (mammalian)
  • fructose 2,6-bisphosphate biosynthesis
  • homocarnosine biosynthesis
  • purine deoxyribonucleosides degradation
  • reactive oxygen species degradation (mammalian)

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of fumitremorgin biosynthesis

    Updated Pathways

  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural degradation
  • α-amyrin biosynthesis
  • alkane oxidation
  • betulinate biosynthesis
  • C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type
  • C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NADP-ME type
  • C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type
  • crocetin ester biosynthesis
  • D-serine degradation
  • Fe(II) oxidation
  • fumigaclavine biosynthesis
  • fusicoccin A biosynthesis
  • methionine salvage cycle II (plants)
  • nitrate reduction I (denitrification)
  • noscapine biosynthesis
  • oleanolate biosynthesis
  • ornithine lipid biosynthesis
  • reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway
  • S-methyl-5-thio-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation
  • siroheme biosynthesis
  • sophorolipid biosynthesis
  • tetrahydromethanopterin biosynthesis
  • tryptophan degradation II (via pyruvate)
  • ursolate biosynthesis


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 18.1

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 2203
    Reactions 11842
    Enzymes 9878
    Chemical Compounds 11432
    Organisms 2552
    Citations 41432

    Released on June 23, 2014

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 56[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 22 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 78 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 12 were contributed by HumanCyc curators. We also added one new superpathway.

    Microbial Metabolism: In microbial metabolism we added pathways for the biosynthesis of the antibiotics elloramycin and tetracenomycin C, the lysophospholipase-inhibitor cyclooctatin, and the fungal metabolite paspaline, which is an intermediate in indole-diterpene biosynthesis. We also added pathways for the biosynthesis of the mycotoxins paxilline and patulin, the latter being a known food contaminant. In addition we curated a phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis pathway found in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris and a pathway for an intermediate in Bacteroides fragilis capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis.

    Other new pathways include the degradation of D-carnitine, gentisate, acetone, kojibiose, D-galactose, and the polythioesters 3,3'-thiodipropionate and 3,3'-dithiodipropionate, non-naturally occurring polymers containing sulfur in the thioester linkages of their backbone that can be synthesized by bacteria. We also added a novel meta-cleavage pathway for 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, mineralization of the phenylurea herbicide linuron by strains of Variovorax, a fungal variant of choline degradation, and mannan degradation by mammalian gut and rumen symbionts.

    We revised our existing pathway for the synthesis of mycolates, long fatty acids found in the cell walls of the Corynebacterineae taxon (a group of bacteria that includes the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and updated several pathways related to sulfur metabolism, including the oxidation of sulfur, sulfite and thiosulfate and the reduction of sulfate. We also revised the pathway for the synthesis of the iron chelate pulcherrimin.

    Animal Metabolism: We curated a unique pathway for threonine degradation in humans that differs from other mammals due to the fact that the threonine dehydrogenase gene present in other mammals is a pseudogene in humans. We also added an alternative lysine degradation pathway that is present in the adult mammalian brain. A new human biosynthetic pathway describes the generation of hydrogen sulfide, a compound that has anti-inflammatory properties, modulates blood pressure, and may also act as a neuronal messenger molecule. Another new pathway depicts the biosynthesis of carnosine, a dipeptide that may act as an anti-oxidant, a neuromodulator, a protective factor for diabetic neuropathy and a suppressor of cell senescence.

    Plant Metabolism: In plant secondary metabolism we added many new pathways involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, and lignans. These include unique acylation pathways for the biosynthesis of the blue pigment violdelphin and polyacylated cyanidin 3,7-diglucosides, a pathway for anthocyanin A11 which is the main and most complex anthocyanin in Arabidopsis, and one for the galloylated catechin units of proanthocyanidins which may have health-promoting effects in humans.

    We added a biosynthetic pathway for the flavonol gossypetin, which has a specific tissue distribution that separates the flavonol aglycones in leaves from glucosylated flavonols in petals. We also added pathways for the biosynthesis of hydroxylated cinnamate conjugates including hydroxycinnamate sugar acid esters, and acetyl coutarate, which is the main hydroxycinnamate ester in spinach (Spinacia oleracea). From the ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum we added a pathway involving a specific O-methyltransferase that catalyzes methylation in the meta-position of many phenylpropanoids with aromatic vicinal dihydroxy groups, contributing to their diversity in this plant.

    We curated the biosynthesis of several triterpenoid avenacins (A-1, A-2, and derivatives) in oats (Avena sativa), which act as specific phytoalexins and allelopathic agents, as well as pathways for the acyl donors (N-methylanthraniloyl glucopyranose and benzoyl glucopyranose) that are used in avenacin A-1 and A-2 formation, respectively. In rice (Oryza sativa) we added pathways for the biosynthesis of key phytoalexin compounds such as the diterpenoids momilactone A, oryzalexins A-E, oryzalide A and phytocassane.

    We also added a biosynthetic pathway for 3β-hydroxysesquiterpene lactones such as parthenolide, a potential anticancer and anti-inflammatory drug found in the medicinal plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). New pathways for the glucosylation of the cytotoxic compounds secoisolariciresinol and podophyllotoxin provide insight into plant defense mechanisms against such compounds, which are valued as anti-cancer and antiviral drugs.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the Enzyme Commission (EC) definitions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of May 2014) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB) and the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), available from the ExplorEnz database.

    We are sad to say goodbye to Deepika Weerasinghe, a MetaCyc and HumanCyc curator, and thank her for her contribution, particularly in updating HumanCyc pathways and enzymes.

    We would like to thank Dr. Ludovica Montanucci from Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona for helping in the curation of HumanCyc and submitting several new human pathways to MetaCyc.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways
  • 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate degradation
  • 2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate biosynthesis
  • 3β-hydroxysesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis
  • 3,3'-dithiodipropionate degradation
  • 3,3'-thiodipropionate degradation
  • acetone degradation III (to propane-1,2-diol)
  • acylated cyanidin galactoside biosynthesis
  • anthocyanidin modification (Arabidopsis)
  • avenacin A-1 biosynthesis
  • avenacin A-2 biosynthesis
  • bactoprenyl-diphospho-acetamido-4-amino-6-deoxygalactopyranose biosynthesis
  • benzoyl-β-D-glucopyranose biosynthesis
  • choline degradation IV
  • cyanidin 3,7-diglucoside polyacylation biosynthesis
  • cyanidin dimalonylglucoside biosynthesis
  • cyclooctatin biosynthesis
  • D-carnitine degradation I
  • D-carnitine degradation II
  • D-galactose degradation V (Leloir pathway)
  • des-methyl avenacin A-1 biosynthesis
  • elloramycin biosynthesis
  • galloylated catechin biosynthesis
  • gentisate degradation II
  • gossypetin metabolism
  • hydroxycinnamate sugar acid ester biosynthesis
  • kojibiose degradation
  • linuron degradation
  • mannan degradation
  • momilactone A biosynthesis
  • N-methylanthraniloyl-β-D-glucopyranose biosynthesis
  • oryzalexin A, B, and C biosynthesis
  • oryzalexin D and E biosynthesis
  • oryzalide A biosynthesis
  • paspaline biosynthesis
  • patulin biosynthesis
  • paxilline and diprenylpaxilline biosynthesis
  • phenylpropanoids methylation (ice plant)
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VII
  • phytocassanes biosynthesis, shared reactions
  • podophyllotoxin glucosides metabolism
  • (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside biosynthesis
  • sulfite oxidation V (SoeABC)
  • tetracenomycin C biosynthesis
  • violdelphin biosynthesis

    New Pathways from HumanCyc

  • acyl carrier protein metabolism II
  • allopregnanolone biosynthesis
  • carnosine biosynthesis
  • GDP-glucose biosynthesis II
  • glycine betaine degradation II (mammalian)
  • hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis II (mammalian)
  • lysine degradation II (pipecolate pathway)
  • NAD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation II
  • pentose phosphate pathway (oxidative branch) II
  • phosphatidylserine biosynthesis I
  • phosphatidylserine biosynthesis II
  • threonine degradation V (Homo sapiens)

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway avenacin A biosynthesis

    Updated Pathways

  • artemisinin biosynthesis
  • avenacin biosynthesis, initial reactions
  • caffeine degradation V (bacteria, via trimethylurate)
  • cholate degradation (bacteria, anaerobic)
  • costunolide biosynthesis
  • diterpene phytoalexins precursors biosynthesis
  • galactose degradation IV
  • gentisate degradation I
  • L-carnitine degradation II
  • L-rhamnose degradation I
  • mycolate biosynthesis
  • pulcherrimin biosynthesis
  • salvigenin biosynthesis
  • sanguinarine and macarpine biosynthesis
  • sulfate reduction II (assimilatory)
  • sulfite oxidation I (sulfite oxidoreductase)
  • sulfur oxidation IV (intracellular sulfur)
  • taurine biosynthesis
  • tetrathionate reduction I (to thiosulfate)
  • thiosulfate oxidation III (multienzyme complex)
  • thiosulfate oxidation IV (multienzyme complex)
  • trimethylamine degradation

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 18.0

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 2151
    Reactions 11670
    Enzymes 9699
    Chemical Compounds 11226
    Organisms 2515
    Citations 40590

    Released on March 24, 2014

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 73[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 44 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 117 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, one was contributed by an EcoCyc curator. We also added five new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism: Among new pathways of interest are a novel arginine biosynthetic pathway that is found in the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and biosynthetic pathways for the antibiotics tylosin and polymyxin A and the antimalarial drug FR-900098. Another pathway of interest is a chimeric superpathway that ties together biosynthetic routes for assorted dTDP-glucose-derived sugars that are used in various antibiotics produced by Actinobacteria. New bacterial degradation pathways include pathways for the catabolism of biogenic amines and the xenobiotic 2-chloroacrylate. Among updated pathways of note are the cyanobacterial pathway for plastoquinol biosynthesis and the so-called futalosine pathways - recently discovered pathways leading to menaquinone biosynthesis in a large number of bacteria, which were named after the pathway intermediate futalosine. Another revised pathway that should be mentioned is bacterial cholesterol degradation, a large and complex pathway that is believed to play an important role in the survival of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans.

    We also added many new yeast metabolic pathways involved in lipid and cofactor metabolism, including a pathway for the biosynthesis and incorporation of lipoate, an essential sulfur-containing cofactor of mitochondrial proteins, a mitochondrial pathway for the biosynthesis of the lipoate precursor octanoyl-acyl carrier protein, the remodeling pathway of phospholipids involved in the homeostasis of cell membrane glycerophospholipids, a pathway illustrating the metabolism of the monoacylglycerol precursors, and a sterol-steryl ester interconversion pathway that controls the amount of free sterols that can be incorporated into cell membranes. We also curated two pathways that depict the metabolism of thiamin triphosphate, a vitamin B1 derivative.

    Animal Metabolism: We added mammalian variant pathways for NAD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (a major source of reducing equivalents for biosynthetic reactions), and a pathway for acyl carrier protein metabolism that describes the conversion of inactive acyl carrier proteins to their active holo-form. We also curated a pathway for salvage of the important cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin In addition we updated several pathways including the GABA shunt that produces and conserves the supply of GABA, a primary pathway for L-lysine catabolism in mammals, the de novo biosynthesis of L-ornithine (a precursor of arginine in the urea and citrulline-nitric oxide cycles), and a mammalian variant of L-methionine salvage that provides S-adenosylmethionine, an important methyl donor for a number of pathways. Other new animal pathways describe mRNA capping and the formation of the most common cores of mucin-type glycoproteins. Other new pathways describe common modifications of terminal residues of O-glycans, and protein O-[N-acetyl]-glucosylation, a ubiquitous modification abundant on nuclear and cytoskeletal proteins of virtually all eukaryotes. Among invertebrates we added pathways for anaerobic energy metabolism, and insect sphingolipid, pheromone, and eye pigment biosynthesis.

    Plant Metabolism: In plant primary metabolism we curated pathways for the biosynthesis of the vitamin E group of tocotrienols, and a cytosolic pathway for phenylalanine biosynthesis that significantly contributes to phenylalanine production in the cell and challenges the all-plastidal paradigm. In plant secondary metabolism we added a pathway for the biosynthesis of (4S)-carvone, a monoterpene with the characteristic odor of caraway and dill. We also curated the biosynthesis and degradation of the flavone luteolin triglucuronide, a tissue-specific metabolite that connects organogenesis and flavonoid metabolism in developing primary leaves of monocots. Updated plant pathways include a pathway for the biosynthesis of ginsenosides, a class of steroid glycosides found exclusively in ginseng, pathways for the biosynthesis of the sucrosyl oligosaccharides lychnose, isolychnose, mediose and stellariose (found in Stellaria media), and a pathway for secologanin and strictosidine biosynthesis.

    Other Improvements

    Engineered Pathways:

    We added seven engineered pathways that describe the production of 1,3-propanediol, a precursor of the polyester poly(propylene terephtalate), in bacteria, the biosynthesis of β-carotene in rice (the so-called Golden Rice, which contains vitamin A as a result of this modification), production of the biofuels butanol and isobutanol in yeast starting with protein, bacterial production of plant coumarins and the flavonoid neringenin in bacteria, production of isoprene in bacteria, and the bacterial production of taxadiene, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the anti-cancer drug taxol.

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the Enzyme Commission (EC) definitions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of January 2014) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB) and the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), available from the ExplorEnz database.

    Over the past year we have added 303 new EC entries, 112 of which during this release period. We also updated 367 EC entries during the last year, with 157 entries updated during this release.

    In addition, we have set the directionality of more than 2000 reactions based on their EC classification. For example, reactions catalyzed by oxidases  were set  as physiologically unidirectional in the direction of hydrogen peroxide production, while transamination reactions were set to be reversible.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways
  • 1,3-propanediol biosynthesis (engineered)
  • 1,4-dihydroxy-6-naphthoate biosynthesis I
  • 1,4-dihydroxy-6-naphthoate biosynthesis II
  • 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation III
  • 2-chloroacrylate degradation I
  • 2-chloroacrylate degradation II
  • (4S)-carvone biosynthesis
  • acyl carrier protein metabolism II
  • aminopropanol phosphate biosynthesis II
  • anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, cytosol)
  • anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial)
  • arginine biosynthesis IV (archaebacteria)
  • aromatic biogenic amine degradation (bacteria)
  • arsenite oxidation II (respiratory)
  • aurachin A, B, C and D biosynthesis
  • aurachin RE biosynthesis
  • benzoate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate)
  • β-carotene biosynthesis (engineered)
  • biotin biosynthesis from 8-amino-7-oxononanoate II
  • bombykol biosynthesis
  • butanol and isobutanol biosynthesis (engineered)
  • ceramide phosphoethanolamine biosynthesis
  • cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion)
  • cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation)
  • coumarins biosynthesis (engineered)
  • crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate)
  • demethylmenaquinol-6 biosynthesis II
  • D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine degradation
  • drosopterin and aurodrosopterin biosynthesis
  • dTDP-α-D-mycaminose biosynthesis
  • dTDP-β-L-4-epi-vancosamine biosynthesis
  • dTDP-β-L-evernitrose biosynthesis
  • dTDP-6-deoxy-α-D-allose biosynthesis
  • FR-900098 and FR-33289 antibiotics biosynthesis
  • hypotaurine degradation
  • indole degradation to anthranil and anthranilate
  • ipsdienol biosynthesis
  • isoprene biosynthesis II (engineered)
  • lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation (glycine cleavage system, yeast)
  • lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, yeast)
  • luteolin triglucuronide biosynthesis
  • luteolin triglucuronide degradation
  • methylphosphonate degradation II
  • methymycin, neomethymycin and novamethymycin biosynthesis
  • monoacylglycerol metabolism (yeast)
  • mRNA capping I
  • mRNA capping II
  • mucin core 1 and core 2 O-glycosylation
  • mucin core 3 and core 4 O-glycosylation
  • mycinamicin biosynthesis
  • NAD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation II
  • narbomycin, pikromycin and novapikromycin biosynthesis
  • naringenin biosynthesis (engineered)
  • octanoyl-ACP biosynthesis (mitochondria, yeast)
  • pentose phosphate pathway (oxidative branch) II
  • phenylalanine biosynthesis (cytosolic, plants)
  • phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidate, yeast)
  • phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylcholine, yeast)
  • phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylethanolamine, yeast)
  • polymyxin A biosynthesis
  • protein O-[N-acetyl]-glucosylation
  • purine nucleotide salvage
  • sterol:steryl ester interconversion (yeast)
  • sulfoglycolysis
  • taxadiene biosynthesis (engineered)
  • terminal O-glycans residues modification
  • tetrahydrobiopterin salvage
  • tetramethylpyrazine degradation
  • thiamin triphosphate metabolism
  • tylosin biosynthesis
  • urate degradation to allantoin II
  • vitamin E biosynthesis (tocotrienols)

    New Pathway from EcoCyc

  • 5-(carboxymethoxy)uridine biosynthesis

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates)
  • superpathway of demethylmenaquinol-6 biosynthesis II
  • superpathway of dTDP-glucose-derived antibiotic building blocks biosynthesis
  • superpathway of lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation (PDH, KGDH, GCV, yeast)
  • superpathway phosphatidate biosynthesis (yeast)

    Updated Pathways

  • 1,4-dihydroxy-6-naphthoate biosynthesis I
  • 1,4-dihydroxy-6-naphthoate biosynthesis II
  • 2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis
  • 2-methylketone biosynthesis
  • 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole biosynthesis
  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion)
  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation)
  • aminopropanol phosphate biosynthesis I
  • anhydromuropeptides recycling
  • aniline degradation
  • anthocyanin biosynthesis (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside)
  • cholesterol degradation to androstenedione II (cholesterol dehydrogenase)
  • citrate degradation
  • citrate lyase activation
  • Δ6-hexadecenoate biosynthesis
  • D-serine degradation
  • flavonoid biosynthesis
  • flavonol biosynthesis
  • formate reduction to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate
  • GABA shunt
  • GDP-L-colitose biosynthesis
  • ginsenosides biosynthesis
  • hypusine biosynthesis
  • leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin biosynthesis
  • L-serine degradation
  • luteolin glycosides biosynthesis
  • lychnose and isolychnose biosynthesis
  • lysine biosynthesis V
  • lysine degradation II
  • malonate decarboxylase activation
  • malonate degradation I (biotin-independent)
  • malonate degradation II (biotin-dependent)
  • methionine degradation II
  • methionine salvage II (mammalia)
  • methylphosphonate degradation I
  • nitroglycerin degradation
  • ornithine de novo biosynthesis
  • plastoquinol-9 biosynthesis II
  • secologanin and strictosidine biosynthesis
  • stellariose and mediose biosynthesis
  • superpathway of gibberellin biosynthesis
  • threonine degradation I
  • triacylglycerol biosynthesis
  • triacylglycerol degradation

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 17.5

    Released on October 11, 2013

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 2097
    Reactions 11409
    Enzymes 9148
    Chemical Compounds 10965
    Organisms 2460
    Citations 37570

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 56[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 33 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 89 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, three were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators and one was contributed by an EcoCyc curator. We also added eight new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism: New biosynthetic pathways include L-cysteine in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, sucrose in methane and methanol-utilizing bacteria, dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone in fungi, and six pathways involved in the biosynthesis of aminocoumarin and anthracycline antibiotics in Streptomyces. We also added several nucleotide-activated sugar pathways including those involved in the bacterial biosynthesis of antibiotics, O-antigen and S-layer glycoproteins, and the prokaryotic and eukaryotic biosynthetic intermediates UDP-α-D-glucuronate, UDP-glucose, and UDP-D-galactose. In addition we curated pathways for the synthesis of post-transcriptionally modified nucleosides within tRNAs that are found in archaea and eukaryotes.

    In microbial degradation we added pathways for acrylonitrile in bacteria, D-glucosaminate in Salmonella, and xylose and L-arabinose in archaea.

    Fourteen new yeast primary metabolic pathways have also been added. Ten are involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism including the peroxisomal β-oxidation of saturated fatty acids, degradation of activated unsaturated fatty acids, degradation of phosphatidylglycerol (involved in cardiolipin biosynthesis regulation), and re-synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Four pathways are involved in the biosynthesis and salvage of thiamin (vitamin B1) and its phosphate derivatives, which are involved in many important aspects of cellular metabolism. They include biosynthesis of the thiamin pyrimidine moiety which differs in yeast from the animal and plant pathways, and thiamin salvage catalyzed by multifunctional enzymes.

    Animal Metabolism: We added vertebrate steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways for progesterone and a variant of estradiol biosynthesis. Among invertebrates, new pathways depict ecdysteroid biosynthesis and metabolism in arthropods, synthesis of the biogenic amine octopamine, and an opine fermentation pathway found in marine invertebrates.

    Plant Metabolism: In plant secondary metabolism, PMN curators added biosynthetic pathways for the flavonoids nevadensin and salvigenin that are found in basil and other plants, and the medicinal alkaloid papaverine found in the opium poppy. The two flavonoids have health benefits including a neuroprotective effect that has been attributed to salvigenin. Two superpathways for important alkaloid compounds, such as nicotine, were created to show how upstream rate-limiting reactions can affect the level of synthesis of the final product in the pathway.

    Glycan Degradation Pathways: We have updated seven glycan degradation pathways with a new type of pathway diagram. The polymer structures are now shown using symbols for the glycan monomers. The location of sites cleaved by different enzymes is shown using color-coded arrows pointing to the bonds within the polymer structure that are cleaved (see for example xyloglucan degradation and chondroitin sulfate degradation). The new pathway diagrams were implemented in Pathway Tools which now supports the symbolic representation of glycans recommended by the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) using the Glyco-CT format for the import/export of such structures. We enabled curation of these glycan structures by developing a Pathway Tools interface for the GlycanBuilder software that was originally developed as the main interface for structure searches and results display in the EUROCarbDB databases. However, the introduction of the CFG symbolic representation of glycan structures has not replaced the existing atomic structures which can still be found for compounds in MetaCyc.

    Other Improvements

    Gibbs Free Energy:

    Standard Gibbs free energy of formation (ΔfG′°) values have been added to most MetaCyc compounds, and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔrG′°) values have been added to most MetaCyc reactions. Some values were obtained from the experimental literature; most values were computed. The values were calculated for a pH of 7. A total of 10,713 compounds and 10,186 reactions now have these Gibbs free energy values. The computation of estimated standard ΔfG′° values for compounds and ΔrG′° for reactions was performed using a technique published by Jankowski et al 2008 . The standard Gibbs free energy of reactions was computed using Gibbs free energy of formation values (ΔfG′°) of the compounds involved in the reaction.

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the Enzyme Commission (EC) definitions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of September 2013) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB) and the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), available from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways
  • 3-amino-4,7-dihydroxy-coumarin biosynthesis
  • 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis
  • 4-amino-2-methyl-5-phosphomethylpyrimidine biosynthesis (yeast)
  • 4-methyl-5(β-hydroxyethyl)thiazole salvage (yeast)
  • 7-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-wyosine biosynthesis
  • 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA degradation (isomerase-dependent, yeast)
  • 10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (yeast)
  • 10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (MFE-dependent, yeast)
  • 10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (reductase-dependent, yeast)
  • aclacinomycin biosynthesis
  • acrylonitrile degradation I
  • acrylonitrile degradation II
  • daunorubicin biosynthesis
  • dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone biosynthesis
  • D-glucosaminate degradation
  • doxorubicin biosynthesis
  • dTDP-β-L-noviose biosynthesis
  • dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine biosynthesis
  • dTDP-N-acetylviosamine biosynthesis
  • dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose biosynthesis
  • dTDP-D-β-fucofuranose biosynthesis
  • Escherichia coli serotype O86 O-antigen biosynthesis
  • ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone biosynthesis
  • ecdysteroid metabolism (arthropods)
  • estradiol biosynthesis II
  • fatty acid β-oxidation (peroxisome, yeast)
  • L-arabinose degradation IV
  • L-cysteine biosynthesis V
  • methylwyosine biosynthesis
  • novobiocin biosynthesis
  • octopamine biosynthesis
  • oleate β-oxidation (isomerase-dependent, yeast)
  • oleate β-oxidation (reductase-dependent, yeast)
  • oleate β-oxidation (thioesterase-dependent, yeast)
  • phosphatidylcholine resynthesis via glycerophosphocholine
  • phosphatidylglycerol degradation
  • progesterone biosynthesis
  • pyruvate fermentation to opines
  • sucrose biosynthesis III
  • thiamin formation from pyrithiamine and oxythiamine (yeast)
  • thiamin salvage IV (yeast)
  • UDP-α-D-glucuronate biosynthesis (from UDP-glucose)
  • UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-fucosamine biosynthesis
  • UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminuronate biosynthesis
  • UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminouronate biosynthesis
  • UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine biosynthesis
  • UDP-N-acetyl-β-L-fucosamine biosynthesis
  • UDP-N-acetyl-β-L-quinovosamine biosynthesis
  • UDP-D-galactose biosynthesis
  • UDP-glucose biosynthesis
  • wybutosine biosynthesis
  • xylose degradation IV

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • nevadensin biosynthesis
  • papaverine biosynthesis
  • salvigenin biosynthesis  

    New Pathway from EcoCyc

  • 5-carboxymethyl ester uridine biosynthesis

    Updated Glycan Degradation Pathways

  • (1,4)-β-xylan degradation
  • cellulose degradation I
  • chondroitin sulfate degradation
  • dermatan sulfate degradation
  • L-arabinan degradation
  • pectin degradation I
  • xyloglucan degradation I

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of anaerobic sucrose degradation
  • superpathway of dTDP-glucose-derived O-antigen building blocks biosynthesis
  • superpathway of GDP-mannose-derived O-antigen building blocks biosynthesis
  • superpathway of hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis
  • superpathway of nicotine biosynthesis
  • superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis
  • superpathway of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-derived O-antigen building blocks biosynthesis
  • superpathway of UDP-glucose-derived O-antigen building blocks biosynthesis

    Updated Pathways

  • 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis
  • 26,27-dehydrozymosterol metabolism
  • base-degraded thiamin salvage
  • carbon disulfide oxidation I (anaerobic)
  • chlorophyllide a biosynthesis III (aerobic, light independent)
  • colanic acid building blocks biosynthesis
  • D-arabinose degradation II
  • D-sorbitol degradation I
  • dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis I
  • galactose degradation III
  • ginsenoside degradation I
  • ginsenoside degradation II
  • glycine biosynthesis V
  • hypericin biosynthesis
  • indole-3-acetate degradation VIII (bacterial)
  • methionine salvage II (mammalia)
  • plant sterol biosynthesis
  • pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis II
  • pyrrolysine biosynthesis
  • sucrose biosynthesis I (from photosynthesis)
  • sucrose degradation I (sucrose phosphotransferase)
  • sucrose degradation II (sucrose synthase)
  • sucrose degradation III (sucrose invertase)
  • superpathway of hexitol degradation (bacteria)
  • thiazole biosynthesis III (eukaryotic)
  • UDP-sugars interconversion

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 17.1

    Released on June 11, 2013

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 2042
    Reactions 11111
    Enzymes 8919
    Chemical Compounds 10593
    Organisms 2414
    Citations 36329

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 50[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 29 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 79 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, four were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators and two were contributed by a BsubCyc (the Bacillus subtilis PGDB) curator. We also added four new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism: New bacterial biosynthetic pathways include pathways for the nonproteinogenic amino acids D-cycloserine and L-homophenylalanine, the secondary metabolite mycocyclosin, the pigment pulcherrimin, and a pathway describing the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters. We also added a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of the antibiotic kanosamine, and a version of the TCA cycle found in acetogenic bacteria. New microbial catabolic pathways include several pathways for pectin and inositol degradation, as well as D-fructuronate and D-glucuronate degradation. We also reorganized our purine nucleotides biosynthesis and salvage pathways.

    Animal Metabolism: We added new pathways describing mammalian sphingolipid biosynthesis and mammalian variants of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. We also revised a pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of ceramides, lipid molecules that are found in high concentrations within the cell membrane and also act as second messengers that participate in cell differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. In addition we revised a pathway for the biosynthesis of serotonin and melatonin. These derivatives of L-tryptophan have a variety of important physiological functions including mood and sleep regulation.

    Plant Metabolism: In plant primary metabolism we added pathways for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q6, which is crucial for the function and maintenance of aerobic respiration in plants and yeast. Other pathways describe the mitochondrial and cytosolic interconversion of the major oxidized and reduced pyridine dinucleotides, which are involved in energy metabolism, electron transport, and the main metabolic cycles in plants and yeast.

    In plant secondary metabolism we added new pathways involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of flavones, anthocyanins and alkaloids. Flavones and their derivatives exhibit pharmacological properties including antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activities. Anthocyanins are the main pigments involved in the development of flower colors and color patterns, which play major roles in the reproductive biology of plants by attracting pollinators. The alkaloid lampranthin has high antioxidant and radical scavenging properties and is used as a food accessory.

    PMN curators added a new sucrose biosynthesis pathway and revised pathways related to starch biosynthesis and degradation. These sugar metabolism and storage pathways are important to agricultural yields and biofuel production. Another new pathway describes how plants produce GA3, a growth-promoting gibberellin detected in many different plant species. A metabolic cluster was created to depict the biosynthesis of a number of structurally related pentacyclic triterpenoids. Enzymes with varying levels of specificity can produce this class of compounds, which are involved in plant defense and often have health-related applications.

    Engineered Pathways: We added two engineered pathways that describe the production of 3-hydroxybutyrate, a precursor for the synthesis of plastics.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the Enzyme Commission (EC) definitions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of May 2013) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB) and the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), available from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways
  • [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis
  • adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I
  • adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
  • adenosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis
  • aerobic respiration (cytochrome c) (yeast)
  • anthocyanidin 3-malylglucoside biosynthesis (acyl-glucose dependent)
  • anthocyanin biosynthesis (pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside)
  • apigeninidin 5-O-glucoside biosynthesis
  • baicalein degradation (hydrogen peroxide detoxification)
  • baicalein metabolism
  • β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation
  • cyanidin diglucoside biosynthesis (acyl-glucose dependent)
  • D-cycloserine biosynthesis
  • delphinidin diglucoside biosynthesis (acyl-glucose dependent)
  • D-fructuronate degradation
  • ergothioneine biosynthesis
  • gluconeogenesis III
  • glycolysis VI (mammalian)
  • guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I
  • guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
  • guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis
  • inosine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis III
  • lampranthin biosynthesis
  • L-homophenylalanine biosynthesis
  • luteolinidin 5-O-glucoside biosynthesis
  • mycocyclosin biosynthesis
  • myo-, chiro- and scillo-inositol degradation
  • myo-inositol degradation II
  • NAD/NADP-NADH/NADPH cytosolic interconversion (yeast)
  • NAD/NADP-NADH/NADPH mitochondrial interconversion (yeast)
  • pectin degradation I
  • pectin degradation II
  • pectin degradation III
  • pelargonidin diglucoside biosynthesis (acyl-glucose dependent)
  • photosynthetic 3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis
  • purine deoxyribonucleosides salvage
  • (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis
  • rose anthocyanin biosynthesis II (via cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside)
  • sphingolipid biosynthesis (mammals)
  • TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers)
  • ternatin C3 biosynthesis
  • ubiquinol-6 biosynthesis from 4-aminobenzoate (eukaryotic)
  • ubiquinol-6 bypass biosynthesis (eukaryotic)
  • wogonin metabolism

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • gibberellin biosynthesis V
  • pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis
  • sucrose biosynthesis II
  • Yang cycle

    New Pathway from BsubCyc

  • kanosamine biosynthesis II
  • pulcherrimin biosynthesis

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway NAD/NADP - NADH/NADPH interconversion (yeast)
  • superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I
  • superpathway of guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I
  • superpathway of ubiquinol-6 biosynthesis (eukaryotic)

    Updated Pathways

  • 4-hydroxyproline degradation I
  • 4-hydroxyproline degradation II
  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion)
  • aerobic respiration (linear view)
  • anthocyanidin biosynthesis (cyanidin 3-O-glucosides)
  • archaetidylinositol biosynthesis
  • archaetidylserine and archaetidylethanolamine biosynthesis
  • CDP-archaeol biosynthesis
  • cis-vaccenate biosynthesis
  • ceramide de novo biosynthesis
  • coenzyme A biosynthesis
  • Entner-Doudoroff pathway II (non-phosphorylative)
  • Entner-Doudoroff pathway III (semi-phosphorylative)
  • gentiodelphin biosynthesis
  • hydroxylated fatty acid biosynthesis (plants)
  • kanamycin biosynthesis
  • ketogluconate metabolism
  • myo-inositol degradation I
  • nylon-6 oligomer degradation
  • phosphopantothenate biosynthesis I
  • proline degradation
  • putrescine biosynthesis III
  • sakuranetin biosynthesis
  • serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
  • spermidine biosynthesis I
  • spermine biosynthesis
  • starch biosynthesis
  • starch degradation I
  • superpathway of β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation
  • superpathway of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I
  • ubiquinol-6 biosynthesis from 4-hydroxybenzoate

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 17.0

    Released on March 28, 2013

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 2000
    Reactions 10924
    Enzymes 8691
    Chemical Compounds 10468
    Organisms 2391
    Citations 35063

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 84[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 31 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 115 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 11 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators and two were contributed by an EcoCyc curator. Five of the pathways are bioenergy related.

    Microbial Metabolism: New bacterial biosynthetic pathways describe the synthesis of the yellow carotenoid nostoxanthin, the yellow pigment grixazone, the activated sugar CDP-D-mannitol, the sialic acid N,N'-diacetyllegionaminate and a novel pathway for the synthesis of the biotin precursor 7-keto-8-aminopelargonate. New microbial catabolic pathways include a third variant of choline degradation, a fifth variant of nicotine degradation, a pathway for the degradation of the uncommon compounds L-glucose and L-gluconate, and a pathway for the degradation of S-methyl-5-thio-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate, a byproduct of polyamine synthesis that leads into isoprenoid biosynthesis. We also curated a cyanide detoxification pathway used by some fungal pathogens of cyanogenic plants.

    We have expanded our coverage of sphingolipids, essential components of the plasma membrane in eukaryotic organisms, with pathways describing their biosynthesis, recycling and degradation in yeast. We also performed a thorough revision of our coverage of pyrimidine nucleotides metabolism, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic (see below).

    Animal Metabolism: Several new and revised pathways describe the metabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides in mammalian cells, including the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, their phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, the salvage and degradation of pyrimidine ribonucleosides and deoxyribonucleosides, and several superpathways.

    Other new pathways describe the biosynthesis of resolvins and lipoxin, a series of antinflammatory mediators derived from omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Other new pathways describe fatty acid β-oxidation in peroxisomes, and the degradation of phytol, a metabolite of chlorophyll.

    Plant Metabolism: In plant secondary metabolism we added new pathways involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of flavonoids and their derivatives (flavonoid glycosides, methylated flavonoids, flavonoid acylglycosides, C-glycosylflavonoids), isoflavonoids and lignans. These compounds are involved in a number of plant biological processes such as defense, mycorrhizal symbioses, gametophyte fertility, UV-protection, hormone interactions and pollinator attraction. In humans, flavonoids have been shown to possess beneficial physiological properties and are of pharmacological and nutraceutical interest. We also revised a number of existing plant secondary metabolic pathways. In plant primary metabolism we added a new pathway for vitamin B6 salvage that illustrates the conversion of six vitamers to pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, which functions as an essential cofactor in numerous enzymatic activities.

    PMN curators added new secondary metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of the plant medicinal alkaloids noscapine, cephaeline and emetine and a new superpathway of scopolin and esculetin biosynthesis. In plant primary metabolism they added a new pathway for the biosynthesis of the unusual fatty acids pinolenic acid and coniferonic acid which contain bismethylene-interrupted double bonds, and a pathway for the biosynthesis of phytochromobilin, a heme-derived chromophore covalently bound to phytochromes. An alternative route for phenylalanine degradation found in lower plants was also curated.

    PMN curators added several pathways from the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular photosynthetic freshwater green alga. They include chlorophyllide a biosynthesis, chlorophyll a degradation, ergosterol biosynthesis (and its corresponding superpathway), and 7-dehydroporiferasterol biosynthesis. They also updated a fermentation superpathway found in this organism.

    Bioenergy Pathways: Two new pathways replaced our existing pathway for the biosynthesis of linalool (an acyclic monoterpene alcohol) to accommodate the synthesis of different stereoisomers in different organisms. We also added a pathway for the degradation of β-myrcene that generates several monoterpenes that have potential as bioenergy products, and two bioenergy-related engineered pathways (see below).

    Engineered Pathways: We added two pathways that describe ethylene production in different organisms, and a pathway for the synthesis of L-ascorbate.

    Other Improvements

    Social Media: We have now set up our own Twitter and Facebook accounts. To keep up with our latest news on BioCyc, please join us at

    Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BioCyc

    Twitter: https://twitter.com/biocyc

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of February 2013) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), available from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways
  • 2'-deoxy-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation
  • 7-keto-8-aminopelargonate biosynthesis II
  • aspirin triggered resolvin D biosynthesis (17R series)
  • aspirin triggered resolvin E1 biosynthesis (18R series)
  • aspirin-triggered lipoxin biosynthesis
  • C20 prostanoid biosynthesis
  • CDP-D-mannitol biosynthesis
  • C-glycosylflavone biosynthesis II
  • C-glycosylflavone biosynthesis III
  • choline degradation III
  • CMP phosphorylation
  • CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis II
  • cyanide detoxification II
  • ethylene glycol biosynthesis
  • eupatolitin 3-O-glucoside biosynthesis
  • fatty acid β-oxidation VI (peroxisome)
  • flavonol acylglucoside biosynthesis I - kaempferol derivatives
  • flavonol acylglucoside biosynthesis II - isorhamnetin derivatives
  • flavonol acylglucoside biosynthesis III - quercetin derivatives
  • genistin gentiobioside biosynthesis
  • glucocorticoid biosynthesis
  • grixazone biosynthesis
  • kaempferide triglycoside biosynthesis
  • kaempferol diglycoside biosynthesis (pollen-specific)
  • kaempferol gentiobioside biosynthesis
  • L-ascorbate biosynthesis VI (engineered pathway)
  • L-glucose degradation
  • lipoxin biosynthesis
  • mineralocorticoid biosynthesis
  • myricetin gentiobioside biosynthesis
  • nicotine degradation V
  • nostoxanthin biosynthesis
  • phytol degradation
  • polymethylated kaempferol biosynthesis
  • polymethylated myricetin biosynthesis (tomato)
  • polymethylated quercetin biosynthesis
  • polymethylated quercetin glucoside biosynthesis I - quercetin series (Chrysosplenium)
  • polymethylated quercetin glucoside biosynthesis II - quercetagetin series (Chrysosplenium)
  • purine deoxyribonucleosides degradation
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides degradation
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide phosphorylation
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis IV
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides biosynthesis from CTP
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides dephosphorylation
  • pyrimidine nucleobases salvage I
  • pyrimidine nucleobases salvage II
  • pyrimidine ribonucleosides salvage I
  • pyrimidine ribonucleosides salvage III
  • quercetin diglycoside biosynthesis (pollen-specific)
  • quercetin gentiotetraside biosynthesis
  • quercetin glucoside biosynthesis (Allium)
  • quercetin glucoside degradation (Allium)
  • quercetin triglucoside biosynthesis
  • resolvin D biosynthesis
  • rutin degradation (plants)
  • S-methyl-5-thio-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation II
  • sesaminol glucoside biosynthesis
  • sphingolipid recycling and degradation (yeast)
  • stearate biosynthesis III (fungi)
  • threonine biosynthesis
  • UTP and CTP de novo biosynthesis
  • UTP and CTP dephosphorylation I
  • UTP and CTP dephosphorylation II
  • vitamin B6 salvage (plants)

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • 7-dehydroporiferasterol biosynthesis
  • chlorophyll a degradation III
  • chlorophyllide a biosynthesis III
  • emetine biosynthesis
  • ergosterol biosynthesis II
  • esterified suberin biosynthesis
  • hyperxanthone E biosynthesis
  • noscapine biosynthesis
  • phenylalanine degradation V
  • phytochromobilin biosynthesis
  • pinolenic acid and coniferonic acid biosynthesis

    New Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • β myrcene degradation
  • ethylene biosynthesis IV
  • ethylene biosynthesis V
  • linalool biosynthesis I
  • linalool biosynthesis II

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • cardiolipin biosynthesis III
  • muropeptide degradation

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of ergosterol biosynthesis II
  • superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside salvage
  • superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis
  • superpathway of pyrimidine nucleobases salvage
  • superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleosides degradation
  • superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleosides salvage
  • superpathway of scopolin and esculin biosynthesis
  • superpathway polymethylated quercetin/quercetagetin glucoside biosynthesis (Chrysosplenium)

    Updated Pathways

  • (1'S,5'S)-averufin biosynthesis
  • 7-keto-8-aminopelargonate biosynthesis III
  • acacetin biosynthesis
  • adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate biosynthesis
  • apigenin glycosides biosynthesis
  • camptothecin biosynthesis
  • cannabinoid biosynthesis
  • C-glycosylflavone biosynthesis I
  • curcumin glucoside biosynthesis
  • diphthamide biosynthesis
  • eumelanin biosynthesis
  • fatty acid α-oxidation II
  • fatty acid α-oxidation III
  • fatty acid beta oxidation II (peroxisome)
  • flavonol biosynthesis
  • isoflavonoid biosynthesis II
  • kaempferol glycoside bioysnthesis (Arabidopsis)
  • luteolin biosynthesis
  • luteolin glycosides biosynthesis
  • lysine degradation V
  • methylquercetin biosynthesis
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides salvage
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis III
  • quercetin glycoside biosynthesis (Arabidopsis))
  • rutin biosynthesis
  • sophorolipid biosynthesis
  • sophorolipid degradation
  • sphingolipid biosynthesis (yeast)
  • superpathway of glycol metabolism and degradation
  • superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis
  • UMP biosynthesis

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 16.5

    Released on November 14, 2012

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1928
    Reactions 10481
    Enzymes 8426
    Chemical Compounds 10157
    Organisms 2362
    Citations 36796

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 60[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 29 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 89 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 2 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators, one was contributed by EcoCyc curators, and one was submitted by MaizeGDB curators. Six of the pathways are bioenergy related.

    Microbial Metabolism: New bacterial biosynthetic pathways include the synthesis of the antibiotic megalomicin A, the modified nucleotide sugar UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronate (part of the O-antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa), cyanophycin (an amino acid polymer used by cyanobacteria to store nitrogen), the osmolyte N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide, the terpenoid 2-methylisoborneol, the natural insecticide spinosyn A, and several hopanoids (a class of pentacyclic triterpenoids involved in membrane function, whose hopane skeletons are recognized as molecular fossils). We also increased our coverage of fungal metabolism by updating the biosynthetic pathways for the ergot alkaloids fumigaclavine C and ergotamine, both of which are known to cause ergotism in humans and animals. Other additions in microbial metabolism include new pathways for ammonia oxidation and denitrification by autotrophic ammonia oxidizers, resistance to the antibiotic triclosan (conferred by modified enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductases), salvage of fatty acids employed by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine utilization by proteobacteria, and degradation of the xenobiotics 4-aminophenol and triethylamine.

    Animal Metabolism: We curated a pathway for the detoxification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a highly reactive neurotoxic product of lipid peroxidation that is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Two new mammalian peroxisomal pathways for fatty acid α-oxidation were imported from HumanCyc.

    Plant Metabolism: New pathways in plant primary metabolism include the biosynthesis of the plant hormones indole-3-acetate (IAA) and 5-deoxystrigol. New coverage in plant secondary metabolism focused on three classes of compounds - phenylpropanoids, widespread plants compounds that function in defense against phytopathogens and in stress response metabolism, terpenoids, many of which are of pharmacological interest due to their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities that can aid in the fight against cancer, HIV and Alzheimer's disease, and cyanogenic glucosides, which provide plants with the means to efficiently repel herbivores and contribute to nitrogen assimilation and amino acid biosynthesis.
    In phenylpropanoids we added pathways for the metabolism of daphnetin, daphnin, cichoriin, esculetin, geodin, asterrate, and furcatin. In terpenoids we added pathways for betulinate, ursolate, oleanolate, and steviol. In cyanogenic glucosides we added pathways for taxiphyllin, linustatin, neolinustatin, vicianin, and 3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile β-D-glucose.
    Other new pathways include the biosynthesis of glycyrrhetinate, which is used as sweetening and flavoring agents, the volatile scent precursors phenylethanol glycoconjugates, the volatile scent compounds phenylethyl acetate and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene, and the terpenophenolic compound olivetol.
    PMN curators added two variants of the of the C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle that is found in plants with Kranz anatomy. Such plants can concentrate atmospheric CO2 via C4 acids resulting in an increased efficiency of photosynthetic carbon fixation.

    Bioenergy Pathways: Two new bacterial pathways describe the degradation of vanillin and vanillate, byproducts of lignin degradation. A new pathway for chitin degradation to ethanol and a new variant of docosahexanoate biosynthesis are relevant to the microbial synthesis of alternative energy compounds for biofuel production. We also updated existing pathways for microbial biosynthesis of the C10 monoterpenol linalool, the C10 monoterpenes pinene, 1,8-cineole and limonene, the C15 isoprenoid farnesene, and the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonate and docosahexanoate.

    Engineered Pathways: We curated engineered pathways for the biosynthesis of isobutanol and bisabolene, both potential sources of biofuel.

    General Improvements

    Atom Mappings in MetaCyc: Starting with version 16.5, atom mapping data is available for 8,281 MetaCyc reactions. An atom mapping describes for each atom of a reactant (excluding hydrogen) its corresponding atom in the product. Implicitly, an atom mapping illustrates which bonds are broken and created during the reaction. The atom mappings were computed using a technique described in Latendresse et al., Accurate atom-mapping computation for biochemical reactions, J. Chem. Inf. Model., September 2012. Atom mapping information is depicted in reactions by coloring conserved chemical moieties within a reaction (Firefox only). And if the user hovers the mouse over an atom in a reactant, that atom is highlighted in the product (Firefox only).

    Glycan Structures:  Starting with version 16.5 of MetaCyc, glycan molecules may contain two types of structures: the atomic structure which is used for all chemical compounds, and a glycan structure that uses glycan monomers as the basic building blocks. Glycan structures are particularly useful for viewing and comprehending large polymeric glycans. Curation of the new structures was enabled by adding Pathway Tools support for the Glycan Builder software tool. For an example, see XXLG xyloglucan oligosaccharide.

    New representation of EC Numbers in Pathway Tools: The Enzyme Commission (EC) classifies enzymes based on the reactions they catalyze. Since EC numbers are issued for enzymes and not reactions, a single EC number can be associated with multiple reactions, and on the other hand, a single reaction can be associated with multiple EC numbers. Until now, EC numbers were assigned in Pathway Tools to the reactions, with a limitation of only one EC number per reaction. Starting with version 16.5, EC numbers are represented by a new type of object within Pathway Tools PGDBs. For most reactions (those with just a single EC number) the main difference on the reaction page is that the EC number at the top of the page is now mouse-sensitive. Clicking on the EC number navigates to a new type of Pathway Tools page, the EC-number page. The difference is more obvious if a reaction is associated with multiple EC numbers. In these cases all of the EC numbers, along with their names, comments, citations, etc., appear on the reaction page. Similarly, visiting the page for an EC number that is associated with multiple reactions will enable the user to see all the reactions (and enzymes) that are associated with it. In addition, from now on, an enzyme will only be associated with an EC number if it is known to catalyze all of the official reactions (if there are more than one) associated with that EC number.

    Other Improvements

    CAZy links: CAZy is a database of carbohydrate-active enzymes that contain glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferase, polysaccharide lyase, carbohydrate esterase or carbohydrate-binding domains. These enzymes are classified into families that are given specific numbers (e.g. Glycoside Hydrolase Family 1). Relevant enzyme in MetaCyc now contain links to the CAZy page for their specific family. For an example, see CipA scaffoldin.

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of september 2012) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), available from the ExplorEnz database.

    We would like to thank Dr. Mary Schaeffer from MaizeGDB for submitting a new pathway for indole-3-acetate biosynthesis. We would like to thank David Damerell of Imperial College London and Rene Ranzinger of the University of Georgia for permitting us to use the Glycan Builder software and for helping in its integration.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways
  • 2α,7β-dihydroxylation of taxusin
  • 2-methylisoborneol biosynthesis
  • 3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile β-D-glucose biosynthesis
  • 3,5-dimethoxytoluene biosynthesis
  • 3-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA formation (Taxol 13C-side chain biosynthesis)
  • 4-aminophenol degradation
  • 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification
  • 5-deoxystrigol biosynthesis
  • ammonia oxidation IV (autotrophic ammonia oxidizers)
  • asterrate biosynthesis
  • betulinate biosynthesis
  • cichoriin interconversion
  • cyanophycin metabolism
  • daphnetin modification
  • daphnin interconversion
  • dTDP-L-megosamine biosynthesis
  • eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis II (metazoa)
  • eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis IV (bacteria)
  • erythromycin A biosynthesis
  • erythromycin D biosynthesis
  • esculetin modification
  • fatty acid α-oxidation II
  • fatty acid α-oxidation III
  • fatty acid salvage
  • fumigaclavine biosynthesis
  • furcatin degradation
  • geodin biosynthesis
  • glycyrrhetinate biosynthesis
  • hopanoid biosynthesis (bacteria)
  • linustatin bioactivation
  • megalomicin A biosynthesis
  • N-acetyl-D-galactosamine degradation
  • N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide biosynthesis
  • neolinustatin bioactivation
  • nitrifier denitrification
  • oleanolate biosynthesis
  • olivetol biosynthesis (olivetol synthase by-products synthesis)
  • phenylethanol glycoconjugate biosynthesis
  • phenylethyl acetate biosynthesis
  • spinosyn A biosynthesis
  • steviol biosynthesis
  • steviol glucoside biosynthesis (rebaudioside A biosynthesis)
  • taxiphyllin bioactivation
  • taxiphyllin biosynthesis
  • tea aroma glycosidic precursor bioactivation
  • triclosan resistance
  • triethylamine degradation
  • UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronate biosynthesis
  • ursolate biosynthesis
  • vicianin bioactivation

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type
  • C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type

    New Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • bisabolene biosynthesis
  • chitin degradation to ethanol
  • docosahexanoate biosynthesis I
  • isobutanol biosynthesis
  • vanillin and vanillate degradation I
  • vanillin and vanillate degradation II

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • proline to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer

    New Pathways from MaizeGDB

  • indole-3-acetate biosynthesis I

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of megalomicin A biosynthesis

    Updated Pathways

  • 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene biosynthesis
  • 4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol biosynthesis
  • alliin degradation
  • arachidonate biosynthesis
  • aurone biosynthesis
  • cannabinoid biosynthesis
  • chanoclavine I aldehyde biosynthesis
  • colchicine biosynthesis
  • γ-coniciene and coniin biosynthesis
  • cyanide detoxification I
  • docosahexanoate biosynthesis II
  • dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis I
  • epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis
  • ergotamine biosynthesis
  • farnesene biosynthesis
  • fatty acid elongation -- saturated
  • geranyl acetate biosynthesis
  • germacrene biosynthesis
  • hyperforin and adhyperforin biosynthesis
  • indole-3-acetate biosynthesis II
  • linalool biosynthesis
  • monoterpene biosynthesis
  • patchoulol biosynthesis
  • phenylethanol biosynthesis
  • pyrethrin I biosynthesis
  • staphyloxanthin biosynthesis
  • superpathway of ergotamine biosynthesis
  • superpathway of indole-3-acetate conjugate biosynthesis
  • taxol biosynthesis


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 16.1

    Released on July 5, 2012

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1877
    Reactions 10247
    Enzymes 8154
    Chemical Compounds 9910
    Organisms 2325
    Citations 35021

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 59[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 22 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 81 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, four were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators, one was contributed by EcoCyc curators and 10 are bioenergy related. We also added three new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism: New microbial biosynthetic pathways include the antibiotics mithramycin, neomycin, kanamycin, paromomycin, ribostamycin, butirocin, and gentamycin, as well as multiple pathways describing the different mechanisms used by bacteria for the biosynthesis of alkanes and olefins. Two new pathways describing lipoate biosynthesis in Bacillus and lipoate salvage in Listeria were curated, along with a new tetrahydrobiopterin pathway found in cyanobacteria. In addition, we added biosynthetic pathways for the naturally occurring amino acid pyrrolysine, the caffeine metabolite theophylline, the pigment violacein, and for CDP-D-arabitol, a component of the Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide. We also added three pathways involved in bacterial protein glycosylation. In microbial degradation we added pathways for (-)-camphor, the isoflavone daidzein, nicotine, and L-1,2-propanediol. We also added pathways for mineralization of the aromatic ring-containing compounds 5-nitroanthranilate, 4-hydroxyacetophenone, 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoate, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, 2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl, 2-propylphenol, 2-isopropylphenol, and 4-coumarate.

    We updated a number of existing pathways including the bacterial degradation of caffeine and nicotine, fungal galactose degradation, and two related pathways that are used by members of the family Chloroflexaceae for CO2 fixation (the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle and a cycle for glyoxylate assimilation). A universal pathway that describes fatty acid β-oxidation was also updated.

    In the bioenergy area we added bacterial pathways for the degradation of alginate and 1,5-anhydrofructose, and the conversion of glycerol to butanol, all of which are related to biofuel production. We also curated microbial pathways for the degradation of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural which are toxic byproducts of ethanol production. We updated existing pathways for the biosynthesis of the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonate and the methyl ketone 2-tridecanone. We also updated the pathway for botryococcenes and methylated squalene biosynthesis by the green alga Botryococcus braunii, a major hydrocarbon producer.

    Animal Metabolism: We added two new pathways depicting the visual cycles used by molluscs and insects to regenerate the visual chromophores in their eyes, and a pathway employed by certain insects to generate the chromophore 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal.  We also added a eukaryotic pathway for the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids by the microsomal elongase complex, and an insect pathway for chitin biosynthesis that is also found in other lower eukaryotes.

    Plant Metabolism: We curated pathways for the biosynthesis of (+)-camphor and (-) camphor as well as a pathway for the biosynthesis of umbelliferone, a coumarin found in all higher plants that is an important intermediate in the synthesis of more complex derivatives. We also revised two pathways for the biosynthesis of nicotine and the plant hormone abscisic acid.

    PMN curators added two malate-oxaloacetate shuttle pathways that transfer and balance reducing equivalents in the form of malate between organelles and the cytosol. They also curated a pathway showing the rapid, transient synthesis of the cellular signaling molecule phosphatidate and a minor shunt pathway for the biosynthesis of abscisic acid.

    Engineered Pathways: We curated an engineered pathway for the biosynthesis of methyl ketones, which are potential biofuels. We also updated an engineered pathway for long-chain fatty acid ester biosynthesis for microdiesel production.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of May 2012) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), available from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • (+)-camphor biosynthesis
  • (-)-camphor biosynthesis
  • (-)-camphor degradation
  • 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal biosynthesis
  • 2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl degradation
  • 2-hydroxybiphenyl degradation
  • 2-isopropylphenol degradation
  • 2-propylphenol degradation
  • 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoate degradation
  • 4-hydroxyacetophenone degradation
  • 4-coumarate degradation (anaerobic)
  • 5-nitroanthranilate degradation
  • brassinosteroids inactivation
  • butirosin biosynthesis
  • CDP-D-arabitol biosynthesis
  • chitin biosynthesis
  • daidzin and daidzein degradation
  • docosahexanoate biosynthesis
  • eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis from arachidonate
  • gentamicin biosynthesis
  • hentriaconta-3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-nonaene biosynthesis
  • kanamycin biosynthesis
  • L-1,2-propanediol degradation
  • lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation III (Bacillus)
  • lipoate salvage II
  • mithramycin biosynthesis
  • neomycin biosynthesis
  • nicotine degradation II
  • paromamine biosynthesis I
  • paromamine biosynthesis II
  • paromomycin biosynthesis
  • pyrrolysine biosynthesis
  • ribostamycin biosynthesis
  • tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis III
  • the visual cycle (insects)
  • the visual cycle II (molluscs)
  • theophylline degradation
  • UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine biosynthesis
  • umbelliferone biosynthesis
  • undecaprenyl diphosphate-linked heptasaccharide biosynthesis
  • undecaprenyl-diphosphate-linked di- and trisaccharide biosynthesis
  • very long chain fatty acid biosynthesis II
  • violacein biosynthesis
  • (Z)-9-tricosene biosynthesis

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • abscisic acid biosynthesis shunt
  • malate-oxaloacetate shuttle I
  • malate-oxaloacetate shuttle II
  • phosphatidate metabolism, as a signaling molecule

    New Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • 1,5-anhydrofructose degradation
  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfural degradation
  • alginate degradation
  • alkane biosynthesis I
  • alkane biosynthesis II
  • furfural degradation
  • glycerol degradation to butanol
  • methyl ketone biosynthesis
  • terminal olefins biosynthesis I
  • terminal olefins biosynthesis II

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • D-serine degradation

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of butirocin biosynthesis
  • superpathway of neomycin biosynthesis
  • superpathway of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle

    Updated Pathways

  • 2-oxopentenoate degradation
  • 2-tridecanone biosynthesis
  • 3-hydroxypropionate cycle
  • 4-aminobenzoate biosynthesis
  • abscisic acid biosynthesis
  • arachidonate biosynthesis
  • botryococcenes and methylated squalene biosynthesis
  • brassinosteroids inactivation
  • caffeine degradation III
  • caffeine degradation IV
  • caffeine degradation V
  • chorismate biosynthesis from 3-dehydroquinate
  • cinnamate and 3-hydroxycinnamate degradation to 2-oxopent-4-enoate
  • fatty acid β-oxidation I
  • galactose degradation IV
  • glyoxylate assimilation
  • nicotine biosynthesis
  • long chain fatty acid ester synthesis for microdiesel production
  • nicotine degradation I
  • spermidine biosynthesis II
  • trehalose biosynthesis I
  • trehalose degradation II (trehalase)


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 16.0

    Released on February 17, 2012

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1842
    Reactions 10262
    Enzymes 7893
    Chemical Compounds 9622
    Organisms 2263
    Citations 33541

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 75[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 10 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 85 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 13 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators, three were contributed by EcoCyc curators and four are bioenergy related. We also added 8 new superpathways and updated 5 existing ones.

    Microbial Metabolism: New microbial biosynthetic pathways include the antibiotics oleandomycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, pentalenolactone and the related neopentalenoketolactone, as well as pathways leading to the synthesis of the unusual deoxysugars that are often attached to macrolide antibiotics, including D-desosamine, L-mycarose, L-olivose, D-olivose, D-oliose and D-mycarose. A topic that received special attention is thiamin biosynthesis, where we reconstructed our existing pathways, defined different pathways for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and eukaryotic organisms, and created several salvage pathways. Additional biosynthetic pathways include dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose (a deoxysugar found in the S-layer of the bacterium Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus), and a partial plastoquinol pathway from cyanobacteria.

    In bacterial degradation we added pathways for several sterols, including two emerging bacterial pathways for the degradation of cholesterol, one for testosterone and androsterone, and one less-well characterized pathway for the plant-derived sitosterol. We also added new pathways for the degradation of methylamine, trimethylamine, styrene, ricinine (an alkaloid produced by the castor oil plant) and chitin, an important nutrient in the ocean. In addition, we significantly improved our coverage of L-ascorbate (vitamin C) degradation by creating three new pathways and revising the two already present.

    Other new pathways describe the GS/GOGAT ammonium assimilation pathways (one from plants, fungi, and diatoms and the other from non-photosynthetic bacteria and archaea), and a TCA cycle variant for mycobacteria.

    Updated microbial pathways include methanogenesis from acetate, the cycles of several 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases, such as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and several variants of the TCA cycles.

    In the bioenergy area we added engineered pathways for the biosynthesis of isopropanol and butanol in Escherichia coli utilizing enzymes from Clostridia and the phototrophic protist Euglena gracilis. We also added an engineered pathway for the autotrophic biosynthesis of butanol in a cyanobacterium, which involves the conversion of fixed carbon dioxide into butanol. Another new pathway describes xylose degradation by the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans, which can catalyze this conversion at pH 5.0 and elevated temperature of 60, making it a promising candidate for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Animal Metabolism: A new pathway describes the repair of a non-active form of NADH, known as NADHX, which is formed as a side product of the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. We have also updated the molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) and the thiamin biosynthesis pathways to reflect recent findings.

    Plant Metabolism: In plant metabolism we have completely redefined the pathways for benzoxazinoid glucosides biosynthesis (DIBOA, DIMBOA and HMDBOA). We also added pathways for the biosynthesis of methylbutenol, a volatile secondary metabolite produced by Pinus species, epoxy fatty acids found in oat seeds, and an Allium-derived lachrymator.

    PMN curators have also added a number of new pathways. Four of them relate to the uptake and metabolism of selenate, a process that has important ramifications for human nutrition and the phytoremediation of toxic soils. These pathways have also been used to generate a revised superpathway of Se-compound metabolism. Protection from another type of potentially toxic compound, phenolics, has been described in the phenolic malonylglucosides metabolism pathway. Plants may also produce compounds that are intended to be toxic to plant predators such as fungi and herbivorous insects. Biosynthetic pathways for three such defense compounds are described for the diterpenoid compounds kauralexin and zealexin and the non-standard amino acid L-Nδ-acetylornithine. An alternative pathway for the degradation of chlorophyll a, an important photosynthetic pigment compound, has also been added. Other additions include biosynthetic pathways for the antibacterial plant prenylflavonoid compound sophoraflavanone G, and the economically important natural insecticide pyrethrin, which is found in the seed cases of chrysanthemums.

    Engineered Pathways: In this category we added a recombinant pathway constructed with plant and yeast enzymes that can produce analogs of gingerol in E. coli. Gingerol derivatives are plant natural products known to have beneficial effects on human health. Several additional engineered pathways are described in the bioenergy section above.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of January 2012) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the current version of supplement 17. We also updated names and synonyms for enzymes with full EC numbers by incorporating this data from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 4-amino-2-methyl-5-diphosphomethylpyrimidine biosynthesis
  • acetyl-CoA biosynthesis II (NADP-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase)
  • ammonia assimilation cycle I
  • ammonia assimilation cycle II
  • androstenedione degradation
  • base-degraded thiamin salvage
  • chitin degradation II
  • chitin derivatives degradation
  • cholesterol degradation to androstenedione I (cholesterol oxidase)
  • cholesterol degradation to androstenedione II (cholesterol dehydrogenase)
  • DIBOA-glucoside biosynthesis
  • DIMBOA-glucoside biosynthesis
  • dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose biosynthesis
  • dTDP-D-desosamine biosynthesis
  • dTDP-D-olivose, dTDP-D-oliose and dTDP-D-mycarose biosynthesis
  • dTDP-L-mycarose biosynthesis
  • dTDP-L-olivose biosynthesis
  • eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis
  • epoxy fatty acid biosynthesis
  • erythromycin biosynthesis
  • glycerophosphodiester degradation
  • hydroxymethylpyrimidine salvage
  • L-ascorbate degradation II (bacterial, aerobic)
  • L-ascorbate degradation III
  • L-ascorbate degradation V
  • lincomycin biosynthesis
  • mandelate degradation to acetyl-CoA
  • methanol oxidation to formaldehyde I
  • methylamine degradation I
  • methylamine degradation II
  • methylbutenol biosynthesis
  • NADH repair
  • naphthalene degradation to acetyl-CoA
  • nectroscordum lachrymator biosynthesis
  • neopentalenoketolactone and pentalenate biosynthesis
  • oleandomycin activation/inactivation
  • oleandomycin biosynthesis
  • pentalenolactone biosynthesis
  • plastoquinol-9 biosynthesis II
  • ricinine degradation
  • sitosterol degradation to androstenedione
  • styrene degradation
  • TCA cycle V (2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase)
  • testosterone and androsterone degradation to androstendione
  • thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis I (E. coli)
  • thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis II (Bacillus)
  • thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis III (Staphylococcus)
  • thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis IV (eukaryotes)
  • thiamin salvage I
  • thiamin salvage II
  • thiamin salvage III
  • thiazole biosynthesis I (E. coli)
  • thiazole biosynthesis II (Bacillus)
  • thiazole biosynthesis III (eukaryotes)
  • trimethylamine degradation

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • 6-gingerol analog biosynthesis
  • chlorophyll a degradation II
  • kauralexin biosynthesis
  • L-Nδ-acetylornithine biosynthesis
  • phenolic malonylglucosides biosynthesis
  • pyrethrin I biosynthesis
  • selenate reduction
  • seleno-amino acid biosynthesis
  • seleno-amino acid detoxification and volatilization I
  • seleno-amino acid detoxification and volatilization II
  • seleno-amino acid detoxification and volatilization III
  • sophoraflavanone G biosynthesis
  • zealexin biosynthesis

    New Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • 1-butanol autotrophic biosynthesis
  • isopropanol biosynthesis
  • pyruvate fermentation to butanol II
  • xylose degradation IV

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • D-serine degradation
  • hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis
  • methylphosphonate degradation

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of aromatic compound degradation via 2-oxopent-4-enoate
  • superpathway of cholesterol degradation I (cholesterol oxidase)
  • superpathway of cholesterol degradation II (cholesterol dehydrogenase)
  • superpathway of erythromycin biosynthesis
  • superpathway of guanine and guanosine salvage
  • superpathway of testosterone and androsterone degradation
  • superpathway of thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis II
  • superpathway of trimethylamine degradation

    Updated Pathways

  • acetyl-CoA biosynthesis I (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex)
  • arachidonate biosynthesis
  • glycerol degradation I
  • L-ascorbate degradation I (bacterial, anaerobic)
  • L-ascorbate degradation IV
  • methanogenesis from acetate
  • molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis
  • TCA cycle I (prokaryotic)
  • TCA cycle IV (2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase)
  • UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine biosynthesis II

    Updated Superpathways

  • superpathway of ammonia assimilation (plants)
  • superpathway of benzoxazinoid glucosides biosynthesis
  • superpathway of seleno-compound metabolism
  • superpathway of thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis I
  • superpathway of thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis III (eukaryotes)

     

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 15.5

    Released on October 21, 2011

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1790
    Reactions 9609
    Enzymes 7611
    Chemical Compounds 9277
    Organisms 2216
    Citations 31145

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 43[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised seven pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 50 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, four were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators, and four are bioenergy related. We also added one new superpathway.

    Microbial Metabolism: New biosynthetic pathways include two variants for the production of the plant hormone ethylene by microorganisms that live in association with plants, pathways for the activated form of forosamine, an unusual deoxygenated sugar found in several natural products, ornithine lipids, which are amino acid-containing acyl-oxyacyl lipids found in some bacteria, and bacterial pyrrolnitrin, a secondary product with antibacterial and antifungal activity. We added a new spermidine biosynthetic pathway found in thermophilic prokaryotes, two additional variants of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, and a 2-aminoethylphosphonate biosynthetic pathway studied in Tetrahymena pyriformis. We have revised our coverage of molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) biosynthesis to reflect recent knowledge, and created eukaryotic and prokaryotic variants of the pathway.

    In the area of polymer degradation we added pathways describing the degradation of the polymers agarose, ι-carrageenan, κ-carrageenan, λ-carrageenan and porphyran, all of which are produced by red algae; gellan, a polymer produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea; and a unique catabolic pathway for chitin characterized from a hyperthermophilic archaeon. We also added a fungal rutin (a plant secondary metabolite) catabolic pathway and a second pathway for 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation.

    In the bioenergy area we added two more pathways for cellulosic biomass degradation, describing the degradation of xyloglucan and glucuronoarabinoxylan, both important components of hemicellulose. We also revised a pathway that describes xyloglucan biosynthesis.

    Animal Metabolism: We added several pathways describing the metabolism of retinoid compounds, also known as vitamin A. These pathways describe the synthesis of all-trans-retinol from dietary inputs, its conversion to all-trans-retinoate, the active form of vitamin A in many tissues, and the visual cycle that takes place in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In the RPE all-trans-retinol is converted to 11-cis-retinol and incorporated into rhodopsin, where it reverts back to the trans form upon absorption of a photon.  We also curated pathways for the biosynthesis of senecionine-N-oxide which is used by lepidopteran insects to detoxify the plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid senecionine.

    Plant Metabolism:  In plant primary metabolism we curated pathways for biosynthesis of the important signal molecule nitric oxide, the phytochelatin isoform homophytochelatin and its precursor homoglutathione, and a di-isomerase-dependent alternative degradation route for fatty acids with cis-double bonds on odd-number carbons (e.g. oleate). In plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis we curated pathways for the phenylpropanoid 6-gingerol, a flavor component of raw ginger;  the lignans justicidin B and diphyllin, which are of pharmaceutical interest; neoxanthin, a precursor of the hormone abscisic acid; and a second pathway for the sesquiterpenoid santalene. We also curated steps in the pathway used by carnivorous plants for the degradation of insect chitin, and a plant pathway for glutathione-mediated detoxification.

    Engineered Pathways: This is the first release of MetaCyc that incorporates metabolically engineered pathways. Our first engineered pathways describe the production of hydrogen and hexanol, and the synthesis of long chain fatty acid esters for biodiesel production. The titles of engineered pathways are clearly marked as such, and a note above the commentary section informs users about the differences between natural and engineered pathways in MetaCyc.

    Other Improvements

    Increased Database Links to PubChem and KEGG

    We have added extensive links from MetaCyc to PubChem and to KEGG. MetaCyc reactions now contain links to 4,014 KEGG reactions. MetaCyc compounds now contain 4,449 links to KEGG compounds and 8,814 links to PubChem compounds.

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of May 2011) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the current version of supplement 17. We also updated names and synonyms for enzymes with full EC numbers by incorporating this data from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 2-aminoethylphosphonate biosynthesis
  • 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation II
  • 3-methylbutanol biosynthesis
  • 6-gingerol biosynthesis
  • acidification and chitin degradation (in carnivorous plants)
  • agarose degradation
  • chitin degradation (archaea)
  • diphyllin biosynthesis
  • dTDP-D-forosamine biosynthesis
  • ethylene biosynthesis II (microbes)
  • ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes)
  • gellan degradation
  • ι-carrageenan degradation
  • justicidin B biosynthesis
  • κ-carrageenan degradation
  • λ-carrageenan degradation
  • linezolid resistance
  • molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis II (eukaryotes)
  • neoxanthin biosnythesis
  • nitric oxide biosynthesis I (in plants)
  • ornithine lipid biosynthesis
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis V
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VI
  • porphyran degradation
  • pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis
  • pyruvate fermentation to hexanol
  • retinoate biosynthesis I
  • retinoate biosynthesis II
  • retinol biosynthesis
  • rutin degradation
  • santalene biosynthesis II
  • senecionine N-oxide biosynthesis
  • spermidine biosynthesis III
  • tRNA methylation (yeast)
  • the visual cycle

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • fatty acid beta-oxidation V (unsaturated, odd number, di-isomerase-dependent)
  • glutathione-mediated detoxification II
  • homoglutathione biosynthesis
  • homophytochelatin biosynthesis

    New Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • glucuronoarabinoxylan degradation
  • long chain fatty acid ester synthesis for microdiesel production
  • trans, trans-farnesol biosynthesis
  • xyloglucan degradation III (cellobiohydrolase)

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of methanogenesis

    Updated Pathways

  • bergamotene biosynthesis I
  • bergamotene biosynthesis II
  • molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis I (prokaryotes)
  • methylthiopropionate degradation I (cleavage)
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I
  • phosphonoacetate degradation

    Updated Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • xyloglucan biosynthesis

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 15.1

    Released on June 8, 2011

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1747
    Reactions 9460
    Enzymes 7424
    Chemical Compounds 9199
    Organisms 2170
    Citations 29927

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 71[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 12 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 83 new and updated pathways.  Of the new pathways, 13 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators. We also added 2 new superpathways and updated one superpathway.

    Microbial Metabolism: New microbial biosynthetic pathways include the 7-deazapurine antibiotics toyocamycin and sangivamycin, the macrolide antibiotic candicidin (a potent anti-fungal agent), the symmetrical C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapolycopenedioate, the betaine lipid diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine, the activated sialic acid-like nonulosonate derivative CMP-legionaminate, which is involved in the synthesis of virulence-associated cell surface glycoconjugates, and a new pathway for demethylmenaquinol-8 that operates in the pathogens Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.

    New degradation pathways focus primarily on the degradation of polymers that make up plant biomass. We added pathways for the degradation of cellulose, rhamnogalacturonan type I, (1,3)-β-D-xylan, (1,4)-β-D-xylan, L-arabinan, and xyloglucan. We also added two L-rhamnose degradation pathways that involve non-phosphorylated intermediates. In addition, we added a pathway for the degradation of sulfoacetaldehyde, three pathways (for microbes, protozoa, and mammals) for the degradation of S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine, an intermediate of methionine salvage, and a pathway for the degradation of chlorogenic acid.

    We have significantly expanded our coverage of hydrogen production by adding seven pathways describing the process in different organisms and by different types of hydrogenases.

    In archaeal metabolism we added the methylaspartate cycle, a pathway used by many halobacteria to generate biosynthetic precursor metabolites from acetyl-CoA, a pathway for the biosynthesis of archaeosine, a modified nucleoside found in the majority of archaeal tRNAs, and a pathway for the synthesis of 6-hydroxymethyl-dihydropterin diphosphate, a precursor of several important cofactors including tetrahydrofolate, methanopterin and sarcinapterin. We also added three archaeal pathways for the extracellular and intracellular degradation of starch and a pathway for oxidative xylose degradation

    Animal Metabolism: We added four vertebrate hormone biosynthetic pathways from HumanCyc. They describe the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, the steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone, and the androgen and estrogen steroid hormones.

    Plant Metabolism: New pathways in plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis describe the synthesis of scopoletin, a plant defense compound with many pharmacological effects, sporopollenin, which constitutes the outer layer of spores and the pollen wall, salidroside, a pharmaceutically important metabolite, sulfur volatiles involved in the plant defense response, methylhalides, salicin and salicortin, which are phenolic glycoside defense compounds found in Populus and Salix species, salicylate glucosides, which are plant defense compounds, specific volatile esters that contribute to fruit flavors, o-diquinones, which are involved in fruit browning, and the recently characterized flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in Equisetum.

    We also added pathways describing the oxidative cleavage of C-C double bonds in carotenoids by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and a pathway for cyanide detoxification during fruit ripening.

    In plant primary metabolism we added new pathways for the synthesis of fatty acids in plant mitochondria, the enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids in oil seeds, the synthesis of polyhydroxy fatty acids from linoleate and linolenate, the synthesis of the cyclic sugar alcohol pinitol, the synthesis of the uncommon nucleoside adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate, and the synthesis of the sugars laminaribiose and callose. We also added a new starch degradation pathway that shows the activity of kinases and phosphatases in the early stages of starch granule degradation in chloroplasts, and a pathway that describes two enzymatic mechanisms for detoxifying reactive carbonyl compounds formed by fatty acid lipid peroxidation in chloroplasts.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of May 2011) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the current version of supplement 17. We also updated names and synonyms for enzymes with full EC numbers by incorporating this data from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 4,4'-diapolycopenedioate biosynthesis
  • 6-hydroxymethyl-dihydropterin diphosphate biosynthesis II (archaea)
  • adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate biosynthesis
  • archaeosine biosynthesis
  • callose biosynthesis
  • candicidin biosynthesis
  • chlorogenic acid degradation
  • CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis
  • cyanide detoxification during fruit ripening
  • demethylmenaquinol-8 biosynthesis III
  • diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine biosynthesis
  • flavonoid biosynthesis (in equisetum)
  • gallate biosynthesis
  • laminaribiose biosynthesis
  • L-rhamnose degradation II
  • L-rhamnose degradation III
  • methane oxidation to methanol II
  • methylaspartate cycle
  • methylhalide biosynthesis (plants)
  • nitrate reduction VII (denitrification)
  • o-diquinones biosynthesis
  • phytochelatins biosynthesis
  • S-methyl-5-thiadenosine degradation I
  • S-methyl-5-thiadenosine degradation II
  • S-methyl-5-thiadenosine degradation III
  • S-methyl-5-thio-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation
  • salidroside biosynthesis
  • sangivamycin biosynthesis
  • starch degradation III
  • starch degradation IV
  • starch degradation V
  • sulfoacetaldehyde degradation III
  • sulfur volatiles biosynthesis
  • toyocamycin biosynthesis
  • ubiquinol-8 biosynthesis (prokaryotic)
  • volatile esters biosynthesis (during fruit ripening)

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases
  • detoxification of reactive carbonyls in chloroplasts
  • diacylglycerol biosynthesis (PUFA enrichment in oilseed)
  • fatty acid biosynthesis (plant mitochondria)
  • phosphatidylcholine acyl editing
  • pinitol biosynthesis I
  • pinitol biosynthesis II
  • poly-hydroxy fatty acids biosynthesis
  • salicin biosynthesis
  • salicortin biosynthesis
  • salicylate glucosides biosynthesis IV
  • scopoletin biosynthesis
  • sporopollenin precursor biosynthesis

    New Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • (1,3)-β-D-xylan degradation
  • (1,4)-β-D-xylan degradation
  • cellulose degradation I (cellulolosome)
  • cellulose degradation II (fungi)
  • hydrogen production I
  • hydrogen production II
  • hydrogen production III
  • hydrogen production IV
  • hydrogen production V
  • hydrogen production VI
  • hydrogen production VIII
  • L-arabinan degradation
  • rhamnogalacturonan type I degradation I (fungi)
  • rhamnogalacturonan type I degradation II (bacteria)
  • xyloglucan degradation I (endoglucanase)
  • xyloglucan degradation II (exoglucanase)
  • xylose degradation III

    New Pathways from HumanCyc

  • androgen biosynthesis
  • estrogen biosynthesis
  • leukotriene biosynthesis
  • pregnenolone biosynthesis

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • curcumin degradation

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation (cellulolosome)
  • superpathway of hydrogen production

    Updated Pathways

  • DIBOA/DIMBOA biosynthesis
  • fructan degradation
  • glutamate degradation II
  • indole glucosinolate breakdown (insect chewing induced)
  • methane oxidation to methanol I
  • pyrimidine ribonucleotides interconversion
  • suberin biosynthesis
  • sucrose biosynthesis
  • trans-lycopene biosynthesis I (bacteria)
  • trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (plants)
  • triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    Updated Bioenergy-Related Pathways

  • (1,4)-β-xylan degradation

    Updated Superpathways

  • superpathway of pentose and pentitol degradation  


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 15.0

    Released on March 18, 2011

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1677
    Reactions 9212
    Enzymes 7086
    Chemical Compounds 9048
    Organisms 2099
    Citations 27579

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 37[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 17 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 54 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 3 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators. We also added 2 new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism: Under "metabolism of inorganic compounds" we added four new pathways for sulfur metabolism, updated two existing ones, and added a pathway describing iron oxidation by the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Under "degradation" we added five pathways for oxalate, the most oxidized two-carbon compound, two pathways for the bacterial degradation of the plant secondary metabolite citronellol and its derivative cis-geranyl-CoA, and pathways describing the fungal degradation of geraniol, nerol, resveratrol, and galactose.In "biosynthesis" we added pathways for mannosylglucosylglycerate and di-myo-inositol phosphate, both compatible solutes common in bacteria adapted to hot environments, and pathways for the antibiotics dehydrophos and jadomycin, which are produced by (different) Streptomyces species. Other new biosynthetic pathways include the biosynthesis of the bacterial signaling compounds quinolone and alkylquinolone (including a superpathway), the bacterial virulence factor pyocyanin, and a fungal pathway for the apocarotenoid neurosporaxanthin. In addition, we added two pathways that together describe the synthesis of queuosine, a modified nucleoside found in certain tRNAs of most organisms, as well as a pathway that describes intron removal (splicing) in archaeal and eukaryotic tRNAs.

    Among the updated pathways are a pathway that describes the part of photosynthesis that harvests light energy, the degradation of the aromatic compounds gallate and 4-nitrophenol, and the biosynthesis of the compatible solute glucosylglycerate and the secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylate. We also updated pathways for L-arabinose and xylose degradation in fungi, and L-leucine degradation in bacteria and eukaryotes.

    Animal Metabolism: We added a new pathway for the metabolism of thyronamine signaling molecules and updated two pathways for thyroid hormone (thyronine) metabolism in vertebrates, as well as the tRNA splicing pathway mentioned above.

    Plant Metabolism: New plant biosynthetic pathways include caffeoylglucarate, an important hydrocinnamic acid found in many plants, the diterpenoid plaunotol used in treating gastric ulcers, the sesquiterpenoid δ-guaiene, which is used medicinally and as incense product, pterostilbene, a close relative of resvertrol that is used in anti-cancer drug research, and tartrate, the principal acid found in wine, contributing important aspects to its taste, mouthfeel and aging potential. Two new plant defense-related pathways were also included, for the breakdown of glucosinolates (1-thio-β-D-glucosides) and the formation of the volatile (C16)-homoterpene (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT)

    Among the updated plant pathways were pathways for the biosynthesis of the (C11)-homoterpene (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and plant sterols, which provide important structural lipids and precursors for plant hormone biosynthesis.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of November 2010) from the Nomenclature Cmmittee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the final version of supplement 16 (see http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/supplements/sup2010/). We also updated names and synonyms for enzymes with full EC numbers by incorporating this data from the ExplorEnz database.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis
  • 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis
  • caffeoylglucarate biosynthesis
  • cinnamate and 3-hydroxycinnamate degradation to 2-oxopent-4-enoate
  • cis-genanyl-CoA degradation
  • citronellol degradation
  • dehydrophos biosynthesis
  • di-myo-inositol phosphate biosynthesis
  • Fe(II) oxidation
  • galactose degradation IV
  • geraniol and nerol degradation
  • glucosylglycerate biosynthesis II
  • δ-guaiene biosynthesis
  • jadomycin biosynthesis
  • mannosylglucosylglycerate biosynthesis I
  • mannosylglucosylglycerate biosynthesis II
  • neurosporaxanthin biosynthesis
  • oxalate biosynthesis
  • oxalate degradation I
  • oxalate degradation II
  • oxalate degradation III
  • oxalate degradation IV
  • oxalate degradation V
  • plaunotol biosynthesis
  • PreQ0 biosynthesis
  • pterostilbene biosynthesis
  • pyocyanin biosynthesis
  • queuosine biosynthesis
  • resveratrol degradation
  • sulfate reduction III (assimilatory)
  • sulfur oxidation IV (intracellular sulfur)
  • thiosulfate oxidation IV (multienzyme complex)
  • thyronamine and iodothyronamine metabolism
  • tRNA splicing

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene biosynthesis
  • glucosinolate breakdown (via thiocyanate-forming protein)
  • tartrate biosynthesis

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of quinolone and alkylquinolone biosynthesis
  • superpathway of sulfide oxidation (phototrophic sulfur bacteria)

    Updated Pathways

  • (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene biosynthesis
  • 4-nitrophenol degradation I
  • gallate degradation I
  • gallate degradation II
  • glucosylglycerate biosynthesis I
  • L-arabinose degradation II
  • leucine degradation I
  • phenazine-1-carboxylate biosynthesis
  • photosynthesis light reactions
  • plant sterol biosynthesis
  • sulfate reduction IV (dissimilatory)
  • thiosulfate oxidation III (multienzyme complex)
  • thyroid hormone metabolism I (via deiodination)
  • thyroid hormone metabolism II (via conjugation and/or degradation)
  • traumatin and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate biosynthesis
  • vindoline and vinblastine biosynthesis
  • xylose degradation II  


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 14.6

    Released on December 3, 2010

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1642
    Reactions 8988
    Enzymes 6912
    Chemical Compounds 8869
    Organisms 2072
    Citations 26848

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 55[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 16 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 71 new and updated pathways.  Of the new pathways, 5 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators and one was contributed by EcoCyc curators.  We also added 9 new superpathways and updated one existing superpathway.

    Microbial Metabolism: During this period we have reorganized and updated the pathways that describe the metabolism of purines, including de novo biosynthesis, salvage, and degradation. Although listed under microbial metabolism, this reorganization of pathways applies to all organisms. We added new pathways that describe the synthesis and degradation of fluorinated organic compounds and several pathways that describe the fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum, an important biotechnology organism that can produce acetone, ethanol and butanol under solventogenic conditions, or acetate and 2-butanoate under acidogenic conditions. We added two pathways that describe manganese oxidation, a process that is still not completely understood, but has tremendous influence on the global biogeochemistry of the planet, and particularly the oceans. We added a pathway for degradation of the C2 sulfonate sulfoacetate, as well as several degradation pathways for C3 sulfonates, such as sulfolactate, (R)-cysteate and (S)-2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate. We also added novel pathways for salicylate degradation in Streptomyces and yeast.

    Also in microbial biosynthesis, we curated a second pathway for the synthesis of coenzyme M as well as new pathways for the biosynthesis of alkanes by cyanobacteria, the exopolysaccharides xanthan and acetan, the potent proteasome inhibitor salinosporamide A, the carotenoid spirilloxanthin and its diketo derivative, CDP-2-glycerol (involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis), rhamnolipids, and the bacterial storage compound polyhydroxydecanoate. In addition, we curated a fungal pathway for the biosynthesis of fusicoccins, which are powerful fungal phytotoxins.

    Animal Metabolism: Juvenile hormones regulate several processes in many insect species, including embryonic development, metamorphosis, and reproduction. We have added a pathway that describes the synthesis of the most common such hormone, juvenile hormone III, in the Lepidoptera, and updated an existing pathway with enzymes from the Dictyoptera, Orthoptera and Diptera.

    Plant Metabolism: In plant metabolism we added several pathways for the biosynthesis of new secondary metabolites. These include methylketones which are powerful insect repellents produced as plant defense compounds, labdane-type diterpenes which are used as precursor molecules in the perfume industry, C-glycosylflavones, and a pathway for O-methylation of tricetin, a potential nutraceutical. A second pathway for the biosynthesis of ent-kaurene, an important precursor in the biosynthesis of the gibberellin plant hormones, was also added. We also updated pathways for the biosynthesis of oligomeric urushiol and zerumbone.

    Three new salicylate glucosides biosynthesis pathways represent ways in which different plant species finely tune the amounts of active salicylate present in their cells. Salicylate is an important plant hormone often associated with the systemic acquired resistance defense response that can also influence other normal developmental processes such as flowering. Finally, we added two new pathways for the biosynthesis of the unusual fatty acids dicranin and sciadonate. Sciadonate is produced primarily by gymnosperms and a few angiosperms, while dicranin is produced in many species of moss. Both of these compounds offer potential pharmaceutical benefits.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of November 2010) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the latest version of supplement 16 (see http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/supplements/sup2010/). We also updated names and synonyms for enzymes with full EC numbers by incorporating this data from the ExplorEnz database.

    New External Database Links for Compounds and Reactions:

    To improve correlation with other databases, we have added the following numbers of new database links from MetaCyc compounds to external databases:  2074 ChEBI compounds, 629 PubChem compounds and 93 KEGG compounds.  We also updated 491 database links to ChEBI, 366 to PubChem and 15 to KEGG.  A total of 4376 MetaCyc compounds are now linked to KEGG, 3212 to ChEBI and 8166 to PubChem.  We have also curated 545 new database links from MetaCyc reactions to KEGG reactions.  A total of 3755 MetaCyc reactions are now linked to KEGG.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate degradation
  • acetan biosynthesis
  • adenine and adenosine salvage II
  • adenine and adenosine salvage III
  • adenine and adenosine salvage IV
  • adenine and adenosine salvage V
  • adenine and adenosine salvage VI
  • adenosine nucleotides degradation I
  • adenosine nucleotides degradation III
  • CDP-2-glycerol biosynthesis
  • C-glycosylflavone biosynthesis
  • coenzyme M biosynthesis II
  • ent -kaurene biosynthesis II
  • fluoroacetate and fluorothreonine biosynthesis
  • fluoroacetate degradation
  • fusicoccins biosynthesis
  • glycolate and glyoxylate degradation III
  • guanine and guanosine salvage I
  • guanine and guanosine salvage II
  • guanine and guanosine salvage III
  • guanosine nucleotides degradation I
  • guanosine nucleotides degradation II
  • guanosine nucleotides degradation III
  • heptadecane biosynthesis
  • juvenile hormone III biosynthesis II
  • L-1-phosphatidyl-inositol biosynthesis (Mycobacteria)
  • labdane-type diterpenes biosynthesis
  • manganese oxidation I
  • manganese oxidation II
  • methylketone biosynthesis
  • O -methylation of tricetin
  • phosphopantothenate biosynthesis III
  • polyhydroxydecanoate biosynthesis
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetone
  • pyruvate fermentation to butanol
  • pyruvate fermentation to ethanol III
  • (R)-cysteate degradation
  • rhamnolipid biosynthesis
  • salicylate degradation III
  • salicylate degradation IV
  • salinosporamide A biosynthesis
  • spirilloxanthin and 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin biosynthesis
  • sulfoacetate degradation
  • sulfolactate degradation I
  • sulfolactate degradation II
  • sulfolactate degradation III
  • tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis
  • tetrahydrofolate salvage from 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate
  • xanthan biosynthesis

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • dicranin biosynthesis
  • salicylate glucosides biosynthesis I
  • salicylate glucosides biosynthesis II
  • salicylate glucosides biosynthesis III
  • sciadonic acid biosynthesis

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • sedoheptulose bisphosphate bypass

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum acidogenic and solventogenic fermentation
  • superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum acidogenic fermentation
  • superpathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum solventogenic fermentation
  • superpathway of guanosine nucleotides degradation (plants)
  • superpathway of phenylalanine biosynthesis
  • superpathway of sulfolactate degradation
  • superpathway of tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis
  • superpathway of tryptophan biosynthesis
  • superpathway of tyrosine biosynthesis

    Updated Pathways

  • 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation
  • adenine and adenosine salvage I
  • caffeine degradation III (bacteria, via demethylation)
  • caffeine degradation IV (bacteria, via demethylation and oxidation)
  • caffeine degradation V (bacteria, to trimethylurate)
  • camalexin biosynthesis
  • coumestrol biosynthesis
  • glutamate removal from folates
  • juvenile hormone III biosynthesis I
  • oligomeric urushiol biosynthesis
  • phenylacetate degradation I (aerobic)
  • polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis
  • vernolic acid biosynthesis
  • very long chain fatty acid biosynthesis
  • xanthine and xanthosine salvage
  • zerumbone biosynthesis

    Updated Superpathways

  • superpathway of tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis and salvage

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 14.5

    Released on October 1, 2010

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1583
    Reactions 8837
    Enzymes 6758
    Chemical Compounds 8763
    Organisms 2007
    Citations 26009

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 56[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 8 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 64 new and updated pathways.  Of the new pathways, 7 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators.  We also added 4 new superpathways and updated 1 superpathway.

    Microbial Metabolism: Apart from oxygenic photosynthesis, very few metabolic reactions are known to produce molecular oxygen. Among the pathways included in this release are three examples of these unusual reactions, including chlorate and perchlorate reduction and "intra-aerobic nitrite reduction" - an intriguing pathway despite the fact that the enzymes have not been identified yet. Another interesting pathway is the first full description of biotin biosynthesis (see biotin biosynthesis I).  We also added a frequent variant of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, another siderophore biosynthesis pathway for achromobactin, as well as the aspartate-semialdehyde derived pathways for spermidine and norspermidine biosynthesis and a corresponding superpathway.  Among other additions are degradation pathways for the aromatic pollutants diphenylamine, aniline, phenylethylamine and carbazole, the degradation of caffeine by soil bacteria, the metabolism of mammalian bile salts by gut bacteria, and a pathway describing the mannitol cycle in a protozoan parasite

    Animal Metabolism: In animal metabolism we added several pathways that describe the biosynthesis and degradation of the important glycosaminoglycans dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate. These polymeric compounds, which are composed of repeating disacchride units of variable composition and sulfation patterns, are prevalent in connective tissues, but also play important roles in regulation and have been implicated in cardiovascular disease, tumorigenesis, infection, wound repair, and fibrosis.  Defects in enzymes involved in the degradation of these compounds are also involved in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Tay-Sachs.

    Plant Metabolism: We curated new pathways for stellariose and lychnose oligosaccharide biosynthesis, along with a lychnose degradation pathway.  We also added the intracellularly segregated plastidial biosynthesis of p-aminobenzoate (PABA).  Two new secondary metabolic pathways were curated for the biosynthesis of the cysteinesulfoxide petivericin, and the flavonoid phloridzin which is a potential drug for the control of blood sugar.  We also added a superpathway that describes the biosynthesis of 1D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), an important storage form of myo-inositol, phosphate and mineral nutrients for utilization during seed germination and seedling growth.

    Additions made by the PMN curators include a pathway for the biosynthesis of juvenile hormone III, a compound that normally acts as a developmental regulator in insects but that may be used by plants to affect insect growth or to deter the growth of nearby plants; a pathway for converting the bioactive plant hormones brassinosteroids to their 26-hydroxylated inactive forms; a pathway for the degradation of caffeine, which helps to explain a strategy plants use to balance and control the content of caffeine that accumulates in different cultivars, tissues and at different developmental stages; a pathway that provides an alternative route for glutamine biosynthesis that helps plants to salvage nitrogen from the proteins in senescing leaves for remobilization and transport into developing seeds; a plant variant of a pathway for pyrimidine ribonucleosides degradation; and a salvage pathway for recycling the prenyl tag from farnesylated proteins to prevent the build-up of deleterious compounds and to provide  building blocks for isoprenoid biosynthesis as well as regulatory protein prenylation.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions:

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of April 2010) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the latest version of supplement 16 (see http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/supplements/sup2010/).

    Update of NCBI Taxonomy:

    We have updated the organism taxonomy component of MetaCyc to match the NCBI Taxonomy Database as of 07/07/2010.

    New addition of monoisotopic mass to compounds:

    To facilitate analysis of metabolomics data in BioCyc, we augmented the compound search form on our Web site to allow searching for a list of monoisotopic molecular weight values, of the type produced by high-resolution mass spectrometry.  It can be accessed from the menu item Search->Compounds.  Our initial implementation of mass-spec support is rather basic, although it allows changing the tolerance in ppm increments.  It assumes the user will preprocess the data values to add or subtract constant groups such as protons.  The search results are presented in a table that allows easy linking to compound pages, to simplify the identification of plausible candidates for each weight value.  We would appreciate feedback regarding desired additional features for future improvements.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 1D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate biosynthesis V (from Ins(1,3,4)P3)
  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation I
  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation III
  • 7-keto-8-aminopelargonate biosynthesis I
  • 7-keto-8-aminopelargonate biosynthesis II
  • achromobactin biosynthesis
  • aniline degradation
  • biotin biosynthesis I
  • caffeine degradation (bacteria)
  • carbazole degradation
  • chlorate reduction
  • chondroitin and dermatan biosynthesis
  • chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate degradation I (bacterial)
  • chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis
  • chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (late stages)
  • chondroitin sulfate degradation (metazoa)
  • costunolide biosynthesis II
  • dermatan sulfate biosynthesis
  • dermatan sulfate biosynthesis (late stages)
  • dermatan sulfate degradation (metazoa)
  • diphenylamine degradation
  • glycoaminoglycan-protein linkage region biosynthesis
  • glycocholate metabolism (bacteria)
  • guanine and guanosine salvage
  • heparan sulfate biosynthesis
  • heparan sulfate biosynthesis (late stages)
  • intra-aerobic nitrite reduction
  • limonene degradation III (to perillate)
  • lychnose biosynthesis
  • mannitol cycle
  • tetrahydrofolate-L-glutamate biosynthesis (plants)
  • N-acetylglucosamine degradation II
  • nonaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis II
  • norspermidine biosynthesis
  • perchlorate reduction
  • petivericin biosynthesis
  • phenylethylamine degradation II
  • phloridzin biosynthesis
  • plastidial PABA biosynthesis in plants
  • pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
  • spermidine biosynthesis II
  • stachyose degradation
  • stellariose and mediose biosynthesis

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • brassinosteroids inactivation
  • caffeine degradation I (main, plants)
  • caffeine degradation II
  • farnesylcysteine salvage pathway
  • glutamine biosynthesis III
  • juvenile hormone III biosynthesis
  • pyrimidine ribonucleosides degradation II

    New Pathways from BsubCyc

  • bacillithiol biosynthesis

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • ethanolamine utilization
  • tRNA processing pathway

    New Pathways from HumanCyc

  • flavin biosynthesis IV (mammalian)
  • ketogenesis
  • sucrose degradation V (mammalian)

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of 1D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate biosynthesis (plants)
  • superpathway of C28 brassinosteroid biosynthesis
  • superpathway of microbial D-galacturonate and D-glucuronate degradation
  • superpathway of polyamine biosynthesis III

    Updated Pathways

  • (1'S,5'S)-averufin biosynthesis
  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation IV
  • brassinosteroid biosynthesis I
  • brassinosteroid biosynthesis II
  • cholate degradation (bacteria, anaerobic)
  • lactose degradation II
  • trans-lycopene biosynthesis II (plants)

    Updated Superpathways

  • superpathway of 4-aminobutyrate degradation

    Pathways that were newly updated in EcoCyc

  • phenylacetate degradation I (aerobic)

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 14.1

    Released on June 16, 2010

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1531
    Reactions 8676
    Enzymes 6524
    Chemical Compounds 8732
    Organisms 1914
    Citations 24423
     

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 67[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 37 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 104 new and updated pathways.  Of the new pathways, 16 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators.

    Microbial Metabolism: One of the main topics in our curation of microbial metabolism during this release was peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We revised our current pathways and added new ones to cover more details of this important process, such as amidation of L-glutamate residues in the pentapeptide component, formation of cross-bridges, and trans-peptidation. We added new variants that describe peptidoglycan biosynthesis in important pathogens among the staphylococci, mycobacteria and enterococci, as well as new pathways that explain the nature of resistance to antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan synthesis, such as β-lactams, vancomycin and teicoplanin.

    Other additions include pathways for the biosynthesis of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate), the cofactor molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide, the cell surface lipopolysaccharide component GDP-D-glycero-α-D-manno-heptose, and the rare amino acid 3-methylarginine, which is used as an antibiotic by the epiphyte Pseudomonas syringae.  Other new pathways described the degradation of uracil, thymine, polyvinyl alcohol, anthranilate, tryptophan, methanol, D-galacturonate, D-glucuronate, and the pectin metabolite 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucuronate.  We also curated four fungal alkaloid pathways involved in the biosynthesis of ergot and its derivatives.

    Animal Metabolism: In animal metabolism we added a pathway for the degradation of hemoglobin that is found in species of the malaria parasite Plasmodium, and a pathway for the biosynthesis of diphthamide, a unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue found only in translation elongation factor 2.  We also curated pathways for the biosynthesis of the common pigment eumelanin and the biosynthesis of L-dopachrome, an important intermediate in the synthesis of most types of melanins.

    Plant Metabolism:  We curated six new monoterpene biosynthesis pathways whose products are used in cosmetic fragrances and as food additives. We also added two new ω-hydroxylated fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and three new fatty acid biosynthesis pathways including ricinoleate and stigma estolide biosynthesis.  Stigma estolide is a naturally occurring lipid-based polyester.  One new GABA shunt pathway was added in plant primary metabolism, along with a sitosterol biosynthetic pathway involved in plant defense.

    PMN curators have focused their attention on expanding and improving the coverage of pathways related to plant defense compounds, signaling compounds, polyamines, and sphingolipids. In the area of plant defense, several new pathways have been added for compounds that are important in combating biotic threats, such as hordatine, an antifungal compound that is abundant in young barley seeds. In addition, substantial revisions have been made to a large number of pathways describing the biosynthesis of glucosinolates. These compounds, produced by broccoli, mustard, and other related plants, contribute to plant defense, but, also influence the aroma, flavor, and nutritional benefits of these foods for humans.

    New pathways related to the inactivation of gibberellins, a major class of plant hormones that stimulate growth, have also been added, as well as pathways related to the production of volatile benzoates that can contribute to floral aromas. Three pathways related to polyamines, important nitrogen-rich compounds, have been added, and the plant variant of the pathway describing the production of sphingolipids, which serve as important cell membrane components, has been substantially revised.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 3-carene biosynthesis
  • 3-methylarginine biosynthesis
  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation IV (plants)
  • 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucuronate degradation
  • agroclavine biosynthesis
  • anthranilate degradation IV (aerobic)
  • D-galactarate degradation II
  • D-galacturonate degradation II
  • D-galacturonate degradation III
  • D-glucarate degradation II
  • D-glucuronate degradation II
  • diphthamide biosynthesis
  • ergot alkaloid biosynthesis
  • ergotamine biosynthesis
  • eumelanin biosynthesis
  • fenchol biosynthesis I
  • fenchol biosynthesis II
  • fenchone biosynthesis
  • fumigaclavine C biosynthesis
  • GDP-D-glycero-α-D-manno-heptose biosynthesis
  • hemoglobin degradation
  • hydrogen oxidation III (anaerobic, NADP)
  • hydroxylated fatty acid biosynthesis (plants)
  • KDO transfer to lipid IVA II (Chlamydia)
  • L-dopachrome biosynthesis
  • methanol oxidation to formaldehyde II
  • methanol oxidation to formaldehyde III
  • molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide biosynthesis
  • ω- hydroxylation of laurate
  • ω-hydroxylation of caprate and laurate
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis IV (Enterococcus faecium)
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis V (β-lactam resistant)
  • peptidoglycan cross-bridge biosynthesis I (S. aureus)
  • peptidoglycan cross-bridge biosynthesis II (E. faecium)
  • peptidoglycan cross-bridge biosynthesis III (Enterococcus faecalis)
  • peptidoglycan cross-bridge biosynthesis IV (Weissella viridescens)
  • perillyl alcohol biosynthesis
  • polyvinyl alcohol degradation
  • pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis II
  • ricinoleate biosynthesis
  • sitosterol biosynthesis
  • stigma estolide biosynthesis
  • thymine degradation
  • trichome monoterpenes biosynthesis
  • tryptophan degradation XII (Geobacillus)
  • uracil degradation (oxidative)
  • vancomycin resistance I
  • vancomycin resistance II

    New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis IV
  • 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V
  • benzoate biosynthesis II (CoA-independent, non-β-oxidative)
  • benzoate biosynthesis III (CoA-dependent, non-β-oxidative)
  • ceramide degradation
  • curcuminoid biosynthesis
  • gibberellin inactivation II (methylation)
  • gibberellin inactivation III (epoxidation)
  • hordatine biosynthesis
  • oxidized GTP and dGTP detoxification
  • phenylphenalenone biosynthesis
  • rotenoid biosynthesis II
  • serinol biosynthesis
  • spermidine hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates biosynthesis
  • spermine and spermidine degradation II
  • spermine and spermidine degradation III

    New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • D-malate degradation
  • trehalose degradation VI (periplasmic)
  • uracil degradation III

    Updated Pathways

  • aldoxime degradation
  • aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, side chain elongation cycle
  • benzoyl-CoA degradation I (aerobic)
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from dihomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from hexahomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from homomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from pentahomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from phenylalanine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from tetrahomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from trihomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from tryptophan
  • homomethionine biosynthesis
  • morphine biosynthesis
  • nicotinate degradation I
  • nitrogen fixation
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis I (meso-diaminopimelate containing)
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis II (staphylococci)
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis III (mycobacteria)
  • phosphate acquisition
  • rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis
  • sorgoleone biosynthesis
  • sphingolipid biosynthesis (plants)
  • trans-cinnamoyl-CoA biosynthesis
  • trans-zeatin biosynthesis
  • UDP-D-glucuronate biosynthesis (from myo-inositol)
  • uracil degradation (reductive)

    Pathways that were newly updated in EcoCyc

  • formylTHF biosynthesis I
  • glucose and glucose-1-phosphate degradation
  • L-cysteine degradation
  • lipid A-core biosynthesis
  • NAD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
  • ppGpp biosynthesis
  • pyridoxal 5’-phosphate biosynthesis
  • Salvage pathways of guanine, xanthine, and their nucleosides
  • superpathway of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
  • thioredoxin pathway
  • tryptophan biosynthesis

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 14.0

    Released on March 18, 2010

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1471
    Reactions 8409
    Enzymes 6198
    Chemical Compounds 8572
    Organisms 1861
    Citations 22459
     

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 41[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 12 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 53 new and updated pathways.  We also added 3 new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism:  We added several pathways for the biosynthesis of siderophores - the small, high-affinity iron chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms for scavenging iron.  New pathways describe the biosynthesis of alcaligin, bisucaberin, desferrioxamine B, desferrioxamine E, putrebactin,  pyochelin, pyoverdine I, vibriobactin and yersiniabactin.  We significantly expanded our coverage of acetoin and butanediol metabolism, and added pathways for the biosynthesis of the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex, an important component of the mycobacterial cell wall.  We also added new pathways for the biosynthesis of salicylate and of the enzyme cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone, and for the degradation of L-quinate, D-arginine, shikimate and arsenate.

    Animal Metabolism:  We extended our coverage of antioxidants with another pathway for ascorbate biosynthesis, an ascorbate recycling pathway found in the cytosol and a pathway for α-tocopherol degradation.  We also added three pathways for enzymatic degradation of the hormone melatonin.

    Plant Metabolism:  We continued our coverage of plant secondary metabolism with the addition of pathways for the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxycoumarin, a plant polyketide that is released only by the action of fungi on plant material, and hispidol, a compound involved in plant defense. We also added three pathways for the degradation of ginsenosides, two of which occur in fungi and one in the ginseng plant itself.  In primary metabolism we added a novel shunt pathway for accumulation of the micronutrient selenium in plants and a phosphate utilization pathway implicated in plant cell wall regeneration.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of November 2009) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the final version of supplement 15 (see Enzyme Nomenclature Supplement 15)

    Update of NCBI Taxonomy

    We have updated the organism taxonomy component of MetaCyc to match the NCBI Taxonomy Database as of 01/11/2010.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 4-hydroxycoumarin biosynthesis
  • α-tocopherol degradation
  • alcaligin biosynthesis
  • arsenate detoxification III (mycothiol)
  • ascorbate biosynthesis VII
  • ascorbate recycling (cytosolic)
  • bisucaberin biosynthesis
  • carrageenan biosynthesis
  • D-arginine degradation
  • desferrioxamine B biosynthesis
  • desferrioxamine E biosynthesis
  • ginsenoside degradation I
  • ginsenoside degradation II
  • ginsenoside degradation III
  • hispidol biosynthesis
  • melatonin degradation I
  • melatonin degradation II
  • melatonin degradation III
  • meso-butanediol biosynthesis I
  • meso-butanediol biosynthesis II
  • mono-trans, poly-cis decaprenyl phosphate biosynthesis
  • mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex biosynthesis
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis IV (mycobacteria)
  • phosphate utilization in cell wall regeneration
  • putrebactin biosynthesis
  • pyochelin biosynthesis
  • pyoverdine I biosynthesis
  • pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis
  • quinate degradation II
  • Rapoport-Luebering glycolytic shunt
  • salicylate biosynthesis I
  • Se volatilization (in Se accumulator plants)
  • shikimate degradation II
  • (S)-acetoin biosynthesis
  • (S,S)-butanediol biosynthesis
  • (S,S)-butanediol degradation
  • UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide biosynthesis I (generic)
  • UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide biosynthesis II (lysine-containing)
  • UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide biosynthesis III (meso-DAP)
  • vibriobactin biosynthesis
  • yersiniabactin biosynthesis

    New Superpathways

  • superpathway of 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis
  • superpathway of mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex biosynthesis
  • superpathway of melatonin degradation

    Updated Pathways
  • alkylnitronates degradation
  • ammonia oxidation II (anaerobic)
  • glucosinolate breakdown
  • mycothiol biosynthesis
  • nitroethane degradation
  • phenylalanine biosynthesis I
  • quinate degradation I
  • (R,R)-butanediol degradation
  • rubber biosynthesis
  • shikimate degradation I
  • streptomycin biosynthesis
  • tyrosine biosynthesis I

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 13.6

    Released on November 21, 2009

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1436
    Reactions 8248
    Enzymes 6056
    Chemical Compounds 8363
    Organisms 1834
    Citations 21713
     

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 43[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 8 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 51 new and updated pathways.  Of the new pathways, 2 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators.  We also added 2 new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism:  Among the additions to microbial metabolism are pathways for the biosynthesis of the indolocarbazole alkaloids rebeccamycin, K-252 and staurosporine. These actinobacterial secondary metabolites, along with related and derived compounds, are known to act as potent inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases and protein kinases. We also added several pathways for the degradation of lignin-derived compounds, including syringate, ferulate, vanillin, vanillate, 5,5'-dehydrodivanillate and guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether. We completed our coverage of protocatechuate degradation by adding a third pathway that describes para-cleavage of this important intermediate of aromatic compounds degradation. In sulfur metabolism we added pathways for homotaurine degradation and tetrathionate oxidation. Other additions include a pathway used by marine bacteria that degrade acrylate, and yet another pathway for degradation of L-lysine.

    In archaebacterial metabolism we added pathways for the biosynthesis of CDP-archaeol, the precursor of all archaebacterial phospholipids, and of the phospholipid archaetidylinositol.

    Animal Metabolism:  We added several pathways that cover the metabolism of inositol phosphates, a group of compounds that includes several important secondary messengers and other compounds that play key roles in signal transduction. Several pathways describe the metabolism of 3-phosphoinositides, D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate, D-myo-inositol (1,4,5,6)-tetrakisphosphate and D-myo-inositol (3,4,5,6)-tetrakisphosphate. Additional pathways describe several routes for the biosynthesis of D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) and of inositol pyrophosphate compounds.  We also included pathways for the degradation of L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, purines, and phenylalanine via decarboxylation or transamination of its side chain.

    Plant Metabolism:  We continued to expand our coverage of plant secondary metabolites.  We added a pathway for the biosynthesis of echinatin, a retrochalcone that is one of several secondary metabolites present in licorice, a substance derived from the root and rhizome of the genus Glycyrrhiza. We also added a pathway for the biosynthesis of coumestrol, a coumestan isoflavone found in many leguminous plants, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.  Other new pathways include the biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides, the protoberberine alkaloid dehydroscoulerine, the cytotoxic alkaloid camptothecin, phaselic acid, and benzoylanthranilate, the precursor of dianthranmides.  We also added a pathway for phosphate acquisition and updated a previously curated pathway for ethylene biosynthesis from methionine.

    Other Improvements

    New External Database Links for Compounds:  

    To improve correlation with other databases, we have added the following numbers of new database links from MetaCyc compounds to external databases: 105 ChEBI compounds, 503 PubChem compounds and 504 KEGG compounds.  A total of 4311 MetaCyc compounds are now linked to KEGG.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis
  • 3-phosphoinositide degradation
  • 5,5'-dehydrodivanillate degradation
  • acetaldehyde biosynthesis I
  • acetaldehyde biosynthesis II
  • acrylate degradation
  • archaetidylinositol biosynthesis
  • benzoylanthranilate biosynthesis
  • camptothecin biosynthesis
  • CDP-archaeol biosynthesis
  • D-myo-inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate biosynthesis
  • D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate biosynthesis
  • D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate degradation
  • D-myo-inositol (1,4,5,6)-tetrakisphosphate biosynthesis
  • D-myo-inositol (3,4,5,6)-tetrakisphosphate biosynthesis
  • D-myo-inositol-5-phosphate metabolism
  • D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate biosynthesis I
  • D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate biosynthesis II (mammalian)
  • D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate biosynthesis IV (Dictyostelium)
  • dehydroscoulerine biosynthesis
  • ferulate degradation
  • flavonol glucosylation I
  • guaiacylglycerol-β-guaiacyl ether degradation
  • homotaurine degradation
  • inositol pyrophosphates biosynthesis
  • K-252 biosynthesis
  • L-dopa degradation
  • lysine degradation X
  • noradrenaline and adrenaline degradation
  • ornithine degradation II (Stickland reaction)
  • phaselic acid biosynthesis
  • phenylalanine degradation IV (mammalian, via side chain)
  • phosphate acquisition
  • phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis
  • protocatechuate degradation III (para-cleavage pathway)
  • purine degradation IV (aerobic)
  • rebeccamycin biosynthesis
  • staurosporine biosynthesis
  • syringate degradation
  • tetrathionate oxidation
  • vanillin and vanillate degradation
  • New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • coumestrol biosynthesis
  • echinatin biosynthesis
  • New Superpathways

  • superpathway of D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate metabolism
  • superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds
  • Updated Pathways

  • arginine, ornithine and proline interconversion
  • ethylene biosynthesis from methionine
  • gallate degradation II
  • lysine degradation VI
  • methylgallate degradation
  • protocatechuate degradation I (meta-cleavage pathway)
  • superpathway of sulfide oxidation (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans)
  • xylogalacturonan biosynthesis
  •  

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 13.5

    Released on Oct 7th, 2009

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1399
    Reactions 8094
    Enzymes 5857
    Chemical Compounds 8221
    Organisms 1795
    Citations 20860
     

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 46[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 13 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 64 new and updated pathways.  Of the new pathways, 2 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators (www.plantcyc.org).  We also added 8 new superpathways.

    Microbial Metabolism:  We added an RNA-dependent cysteine biosynthesis pathway found in the Euryarchaeota, two pathways for the salvage of adenosylcobalamin, several pathways describing biosynthesis of carotenoid compounds in bacteria, including neurosporin, zeaxanthin-β-D-diglucoside, synechoxanthin, myxol-2' fucoside and spheroidene, a pathway for the biosynthesis of the siderophore petrobactin, a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of the common electron carrier menaquinone, and a pathway for the biosynthesis of the fatty acid palmitoleate. We also created a superpathway describing the complete biosynthesis of fatty acids in E. coli and imported a pathway for methylthioadenosine degradation from EcoCyc.

    Animal Metabolism:  We added a pathway for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine that is found in both eukaryotes and archaea.  We also covered thyroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism, pathways for the degradation of tryptophan and serotonin, and pathways for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and cysteine.

    Plant Metabolism:  We enhanced our coverage of glucosinolates, a class of nitrogen and sulfur containing secondary metabolites involved in plant pathogen defense.  New pathways included glucosinolate biosynthesis from di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexahomomethionine, as well as two breakdown (activation) pathways of indole glucosinolates.  We also added a plant pathway for isoprene biosynthesis.  Isoprene emissions from trees and other plants have a major effect on atmospheric chemistry.  In addition, we curated a pathway for methyl indole-3-acetate interconversion showing one of several ways that plants can modulate the biological activity of this hormone.

    Also in plant metabolism we covered the biosynthesis of 12 new plant sesquiterpenoids including the phytotoxin botrydial, plant defense compounds curcumene and bergamotene,  and compounds used in the flavor, fragrance and drug industries.  We also curated four new polyketide biosynthetic pathways and pathways for biosynthesis of the diterpenoid  phytoalexin casbene, the polyamine putrescine, the terpenophenolic compound olivetol involved in plant defense, and the hormone tuberonate glucoside.  In addition, we added an aldehyde oxidation pathway, a pathway for dihydroconiferyl aldehyde biosynthesis and we reviewed an existing homogalacturonan degradation pathway.

    Other Improvements

    New External Database Links for Compounds and Reactions:

    To improve correlation with other databases, we have added the following numbers of new database links from MetaCyc compounds and reactions to external databases: 922 KEGG compounds, 304 ChEBI compounds, 900 PubChem compounds, and 3269 KEGG reactions.

    We thank Dr. Daniel Kliebenstein of the University of California Davis for providing valuable feedback on glucosinolate pathway curation.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • β-caryophyllene biosynthesis
  • β-cubebene biosynthesis
  • adenosylcobalamin salvage from cobalamin
  • adenosylcobalamin salvage from cobinamide II
  • aldehyde oxidation I
  • aloesone biosynthesis II
  • aromatic polyketides biosynthesis
  • barbaloin biosynthesis
  • bergamotene biosynthesis I
  • bergamotene biosynthesis II
  • botrydial biosynthesis
  • casbene biosynthesis
  • curcumene biosynthesis
  • cysteine biosynthesis II (RNA-dependent)
  • demethylmenaquinone-8 biosynthesis II
  • eudesmol biosynthesis
  • myxol-2' fucoside biosynthesis
  • neurosporene biosynthesis
  • olivetol biosynthesis
  • palmitoleate biosynthesis I
  • patchoulol biosynthesis
  • petrobactin biosynthesis
  • phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis III
  • plumbagin biosynthesis
  • putrescine biosynthesis IV
  • santalene biosynthesis
  • selenocysteine biosynthesis II (archaea and eukaryotes)
  • selinene biosynthesis
  • serotonin degradation
  • spheroidene and spharoidenone biosynthesis
  • synechoxanthin biosynthesis
  • thyroid hormone biosynthesis
  • thyroid hormone metabolism I (via deiodination)
  • thyroid hormone metabolism II (via conjugation and/or degradation)
  • tryptophan degradation X (mammalian, via tryptamine)
  • tuberonate glucoside biosynthesis
  • valencene and 7-epi-α-selinene biosynthesis
  • zeaxanthin-β-D-diglucoside biosynthesis
  • zerumbone biosynthesis
  • New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, side chain elongation cycle
  • dihydroconiferyl aldehyde biosynthesis
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from dihomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from hexahomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from pentahomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from tetrahomomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from trihomomethionine
  • indole glucosinolate breakdown (active in intact plant cell)
  • indole glucosinolate breakdown (insect chewing induced)
  • isoprene biosynthesis
  • methyl indole-3-acetate interconversion
  • New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • methylthioadenosine degradation
  • New Superpathways

  • cysteine biosynthesis III (mammalia)
  • cysteine biosynthesis IV (fungi)
  • superpathway of flavones and derivatives biosynthesis
  • superpathway of menaquinone-8 biosynthesis II
  • superpathway of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis
  • superpathway of unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis (E. coli)
  • superpathway of fatty acids biosynthesis (E. coli)
  • tryptophan degradation XI (mammalian, via kynurenine)
  • Updated Pathways

  • (S)-reticuline biosynthesis I
  • abietic acid biosynthesis
  • astaxanthin iosynthesis
  • chorismate biosynthesis I
  • cysteine biosynthesis I
  • fluorene degradation I
  • galactose degradation I (Leloir pathway)
  • homogalacturonan degradation
  • jasmonic acid biosynthesis
  • phytyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • proanthocyanidin biosynthesis from flavanols
  • superpathway of heme biosynthesis from uroporphyrinogen-III
  • ternatin C5 biosynthesis

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 13.1

    Released on June 19, 2009

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1355
    Reactions 7837
    Enzymes 5792
    Chemical Compounds 7979
    Organisms 1735
    Citations 19994
     

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 56[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 10 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 66 new and updated pathways.  Of the new pathways, eight were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators (www.plantcyc.org).  We also added six new superpathways, one of which was contributed by PMN.

    During this release we have expanded our coverage of microbial pathways for the degradation of aromatic compounds, with an emphasis on chloro-substitution.  Other fields that received special attention were archaeal metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of bacterial auto-inducer compounds.

    In animal metabolism, we added pathways for the biosynthesis of dolichol and dolichyl-phosphate, creatine-phosphate, histamine and four pathways for the biosynthesis of CMP-sialic acid derivatives.  We also added a histamine degradation pathway.

    In plant metabolism we curated pathways for biosynthesis of the plant hormones indole-3-acetyl amino acids, jasmonyl amino acids and hydroxyjasmonate sulfate, as well as the flavonoids quercetinsulphates, chrysoeriol and luteolin glycosides.  In addition, we added pathways for thiamine (vitamin B1) biosynthesis, serine racemization and calamenene terpenoid biosynthesis.

    Other Improvements

    During this release period all MetaCyc compounds have been indexed in the NCBI PubChem database and 6,774 corresponding links from MetaCyc to PubChem have been either updated or added.

    We thank Dr. Kuni Takayama from the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, WI for his useful advice concerning the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolate biosynthesis pathway.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate degradation
  • 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation
  • 2,4-dichlorotoluene degradation
  • 2,5-dichlorotoluene degradation
  • 2-aminophenol degradation
  • 2-chlorobenzoate degradation
  • 3,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation
  • 3,4-dichlorotoluene degradation
  • 3-chlorobenzoate degradation II (via protocatechuate)
  • 3-chlorobenzoate degradation III (via gentisate)
  • 3-chlorocatechol degradation II (ortho)
  • 3-chlossrocatechol degradation III (meta pashsway)
  • 3-dehydroquinate biosynthesis I
  • 3-dehydroquinate biosynthesis II (archaea)
  • 4-chlorobenzoate degradation
  • 4-methylcatechol degradation (ortho cleavage)
  • 6-hydroxymethyl-dihydropterin diphosphate biosynthesis
  • archaetidylserine biosynthesis
  • autoinducer AI-1 biosynthesis
  • autoinducer AI-2 biosynthesis
  • autoinducer AI-2 biosynthesis II (Vibrio)
  • biphenyl degradation
  • chlorinated phenols degradation
  • chorismate biosynthesis from 3-dehydroquinate
  • cis-calamenene related sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis
  • CMP-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate biosynthesis
  • CMP-N-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes)
  • CMP-N-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis II (bacteria)
  • CMP-N-glycoloylneuraminate biosynthesis
  • CMP-pseudaminate biosynthesis
  • creatine-phosphate biosynthesis
  • cysteine biosynthesis II (Archaea)
  • dolichol and dolichyl phosphate biosynthesis
  • flavin biosynthesis II (archaea)
  • flavin biosynthesis III (eukaryotes)
  • gentisate degradation
  • glycerol degradation II
  • glycerol degradation III
  • histamine biosynthesis
  • histamine degradation
  • lanosterol biosynthesis
  • methylsalicylate degradation
  • mevalonate pathway II (archaea)
  • salicylate degradation I
  • serine racemization
  • (S)-reticuline biosynthesis II
  • tetrahydromethanopterin biosynthesis
  • tyrosine biosynthesis IV
  • New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • chrysoeriol biosynthesis
  • hydroxyjasmonate sulfate biosynthesis
  • indole-3-acetyl-amino acid biosynthesis
  • jasmonoyl-amino acid conjugates biosynthesis I
  • jasmonoyl-amino acid conjugates biosynthesis II
  • luteolin glycosides biosynthesis
  • quercetinsulphates biosynthesis
  • thiamine biosynthesis II
  • New Superpathways

  • alliin degradation
  • gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum)
  • Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum biosynthetic metabolism
  • superpathway of jasmonoyl amino acid biosynthesis
  • superpathway of salicylate degradation

  • superpathway of sialic acid and CMP-sialic acid biosynthesis
  • Updated Pathways

  • γ-hexachlorocyclohexane degradation
  • coenzyme B biosynthesis
  • glutamate biosynthesis V
  • glycine degradation (creatine biosynthesis)
  • IAA biosynthesis I
  • IAA conjugate biosynthesis II
  • pentachlorophenol degradation
  • removal of superoxide radicals
  • S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle II (eukaryotic)
  • (S)-reticuline biosynthesis I

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 13.0

    Released on March 9, 2009

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1289
    Reactions 7686
    Enzymes 5528
    Chemical Compounds 7722
    Organisms 1683
    Citations 19155
     

    The MetaCyc Web site has been redesigned to provide a new toolbar and new search commands. For quick instructions on how to use it, click here, or watch the webinar on how to use the new site.

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 92[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 17 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 109 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 16 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators (www.plantcyc.org); four were contributed by MouseCyc (Mouse Genome Informatics) curator Alexei Evsikov (mousecyc.jax.org); two were contributed by the Rhodococcus Genome Project, Eltis laboratory (www.rhodococcus.ca); and one was contributed by SRI postdoctoral fellow Malabika Sarker.  We also added four new superpathways, one of which was contributed by PMN.

    During this release we have significantly expanded our coverage of bacterial degradation pathways for chloro-aromatic compounds, important pollutants of the environment. Another field that received extensive curation concerns the metabolism of dimethylsulfide, the major contributor of sulfur to the atmosphere, and related compounds.  Other additions include new pathways for the biosynthesis of tyrosine, mannosylfructose, zymosterol, indican and indigo, as well as pathways for the degradation of pseudouridine, acetoin, citrate, 4-sulfocatechol, ethanedisulfonate, malonate, anthranilate, 4-ethylphenol and nitrilotriacetate.

    A new pathway for mycolate biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv represents an important pathway for the design of anti-tubercular drugs.  Mycolic acids are components of the mycobacterial cell wall and are essential for survival of the organism.  They are responsible for the unusually low permeability and consequent resistance to common antibiotics, as well as for virulence and the persistence of the tubercle bacillus within infected organisms.  This pathway details the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and their processing into final products.

    In animal metabolism, we added pathways for the biosynthesis of bile acids, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and L-carnitine, as well as the mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle pathway and a pathway for spermine and spermidine degradation.

    In plant primary metabolism we focused our curation effort in the biosynthesis of ascorbate (vitamin C), various phospholipids, and the cell surface lipids cutin and wax. We created three new biosynthesis pathways for ascorbate, three for phosphatidylcholine, two for phosphatidylglycerol and one for phosphatidylethanolamine.  In addition, we updated five existing pathways for ascorbate, cutin, cuticular wax, glycolipid, and phospholipid biosynthesis.  We also continued our effort to further enhance the coverage of plant secondary metabolites with new pathways for the biosynthesis of vitexin, isovitexin, peonidin and their derivatives, flavonols, triterpenoids(one of which could be used as a source for potential hydrocarbon fuels), cinnamates and sterols.  We also added pathways for the biosynthesis of methylquercetin, the alkaloid capsiconiate, a  higher plant pathway for protein turnover in germinating seeds, and a plant pathway for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) degradation. In addition, we added two algal pathways for alginate biosynthesis.

    We thank Dr. Carol Bult and Dr. Alexei Evsikov from the Jackson Laboratory for their contribution of pathways from the MouseCyc database (mousecyc.jax.org).

    We thank Dr. Lindsay Eltis and Dr. Hao-Ping Chen from the University of British Columbia for their contribution of pathways from the Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 database (www.rhodococcus.ca).

    We thank Malabika Sarker from SRI International for her contribution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolate biosynthesis pathway, by far the largest pathway in our database.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of January 2009) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating the final version of supplement 14 (see Enzyme Nomenclature Supplement 14).

    Compound Protonation and Reaction Balancing

    Starting with version 13.0, all MetaCyc compounds have been adjusted to a consistent protonation state for a reference pH of 7.3, common in the cellular cytosol. This adjustment was performed using the Marvin computational chemistry software (ChemAxon, Ltd). In addition, all reactions that had a mass-imbalance due only to hydrogen atoms were computationally balanced by adding or removing protons from the appropriate side of the reaction.

     These updated compounds and reactions will be propagated into all BioCyc PGDBs, and to other PGDBs created using Pathway Tools, making it easier to apply flux-balance analysis (FBA) techniques to these databases. This change results in certain differences between some MetaCyc reactions and the comparable reactions in other databases, such as the Enzyme Database . However, we believe that the representation of reactions in MetaCyc is more consistent and, within the limits of the cytosolic pH of 7.3, more accurate.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene degradation
  • 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene degradation
  • 1,2-dichlorobenzene degradation
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 biosynthesis
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene degradation
  • 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate degradation
  • 3,4,6-trichlorocatechol degradation
  • 3,4-dichlorocatechol degradation
  • 3,5-dichlorocatechol degradation
  • 3-chlorobenzoate degradation (aerobic)
  • 3-chlorocatechol degradation
  • 3-chlorotoluene degradation I
  • 3-chlorotoluene degradation II
  • 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate degradation
  • 4-chlorocatechol degradation
  • 4-ethylphenol degradation (anaerobic)
  • 4-sulfocatechol degradation
  • 5-chloro-3-methyl-catechol degradation
  • acetoin degradation
  • alginate biosynthesis I
  • alginate biosynthesis II
  • anthranilate degradation I (aerobic)
  • anthranilate degradation II (aerobic)
  • avenacin biosynthesis
  • bile acid biosynthesis, neutral pathway
  • C30 botryococcene biosynthesis
  • capsiconiate biosynthesis
  • cardenolide biosynthesis
  • cardenolide glucosides biosynthesis
  • ceramide biosynthesis
  • chlorobenzene degradation
  • chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II
  • chlorogenic acid biosynthesis I
  • chlorosalicylate degradation
  • citrate degradation
  • dammara-18(28),21-diene biosynthesis
  • dimethylsulfide degradation I
  • dimethylsulfide degradation II (oxidation)
  • dimethylsulfide degradation III (oxidation)
  • dimethylsulfone degradation
  • dimethylsulfoniopropionate biosynthesis I (Wollastonia)
  • dimethylsulfoniopropionate biosynthesis II (Spartina)
  • dimethylsulfoniopropionate biosynthesis III (algae)
  • dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation I (cleavage)
  • dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation II (cleavage)
  • dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation III (demethylation)
  • dimethylsulfoxide degradation
  • diploterol and cycloartenol biosynthesis
  • ethanedisulfonate degradation
  • glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle
  • indican biosynthesis
  • indigo biosynthesis
  • L-carnitine biosynthesis
  • malonate degradation II (biotin-dependent)
  • mangrove triterpenoid biosynthesis
  • mannosylfructose biosynthesis
  • methanesulfonate degradation
  • methylthiopropionate degradation I (cleavage)
  • methylthiopropionate degradation II (demethylation)
  • mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle pathway
  • mycolate biosynthesis
  • nitrilotriacetate degradation
  • pseudoeuridine degradation
  • seed germination protein turnover
  • serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
  • spermine and spermidine degradation
  • sphingomyelin metabolism
  • sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate metabolism
  • tyrosine biosynthesis III
  • zymosterol biosynthesis
  • New Pathways from Plant Metabolic Network (PMN)

  • 2,3-cis-flavanols biosynthesis
  • 2,3-trans-flavanols biosynthesis
  • 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene degradation
  • ascorbate biosynthesis II (L-gulose pathway)
  • ascorbate biosynthesis III (VTC2 cycle)
  • ascorbate biosynthesis IV (extended VTC2 cycle)
  • isovitexin and isovitexin glycosides biosynthesis
  • methylquercetin biosynthesis
  • peonidin and derivatives biosynthesis
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis II
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis III
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis IV
  • phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I
  • phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II
  • phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis II
  • vitexin and detivatives biosynthesis
  • New Pathways from MouseCyc

  • ceramide biosynthesis
  • serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
  • sphingomyelin metabolism
  • sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate metabolism
  • New Pathways from the Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 database

  • biphenyl degradation
  • phthalate degradation
  • New Superpathways

  • superpathway of dimethylsulfone degradation
  • superpathway of dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation
  • superpathway of mycolate biosynthesis
  • superpathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis
  • Updated Pathways

  • 1,4-dichlorobenzene degradation
  • ascorbate biosynthesis I (galactose pathway)
  • ascorbate biosynthesis VI
  • cuticular wax biosynthesis
  • cutin biosynthesis
  • ergosterol biosynthesis
  • ethylbenzene degradation (anaerobic)
  • glycolipid biosynthesis
  • histidine biosynthesis
  • lupeol biosynthesis
  • malonate degradation I (biotin-independent)
  • phospholipid biosynthesis II
  • proanthocyanidin biosynthesis from flavanols
  • superpathway of ergosterol biosynthesis
  • thiamin biosynthesis I
  • tyrosine biosynthesis II
  • uridine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 12.5

    Released on October 15, 2008

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1203
    Reactions 7312
    Enzymes 5127
    Chemical Compounds 7234
    Organisms 1549
    Citations 17916

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 72[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised seven pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 79 new and updated pathways. Of the new pathways, 12 were contributed by PMN (Plant Metabolic Network) curators (http://plantcyc.org), two were contributed by SGD (Saccharomyces Genome Database) curator Cynthia Krieger (http://pathway.yeastgenome.org/biocyc/) and 13 were imported from EcoCyc, as shown below.  We also added three new superpathways.  The superpathway of linamarin and lotaustralin biosynthesis was also contributed by PMN.

    During this period we have significantly revised our coverage of fatty acid biosynthesis. Detailed pathways now describe the biosynthesis of the basic long chain saturated fatty acids palmitate and stearate.  Additional pathways cover the biosynthesis of common unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleate, cis-vaccenate, oleate, linoleate, α-linolenate and γ-linolenate. Other additions include new pathways for the biosynthesis of trehalose, acetoin, L-asparagine, butanediol, CDP-diacylglycerol, glycine betaine, and molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide.  We also added pathways for the degradation of sulfoacetaldehyde, and nitrate assimilation in cyanobacteria.  In the area of microbial secondary metabolism we added pathways for the biosynthesis of aflatoxins, geosmin, and the antibiotics rifamycin B and gramicidin S.

    In plant metabolism, we continued to focus on further enhancing our coverage of plant secondary metabolites.  New pathways were added for the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids thalianal, marneral, baruol and arabidiol; the flavone apigenin; the sorghum allelochemical compound sorgoleone; the flavor and aroma-related compounds furaneol and cinnamate esters; and acridone alkaloids which are potential chemopreventive agents.  We also added pathways for the degradation of the cyanogenic glycosides lotasutraline, amygdalin and prunasin; and dhurrin degradation which involves hydrolysis of cyanogenic glucosides.  In primary metabolism, we curated pathways for the biosynthesis of xylogalacturonan - a pectic polysaccharide; the unusual fatty acids crepenynic acid and vernolic acid; the metal ion chelator nicotianamine; and lupinate which may stabilize plant hormone metabolism.  We also added a plant wound healing and defense pathway involving wound-induced proteolysis.  In addition we curated two transport pathways, one involving long distance transport of nicotianamine (NA) and one involving transport of ammonia for metabolic processes.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of August 2008) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by incorporating supplement 14 (see Enzyme Nomenclature Supplement 14).

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • α-linolenate biosynthesis
  • γ-linolenate biosynthesis I (plants)
  • γ-linolenate biosynthesis II (animals)
  • (1'S,5'S)-averufin biosynthesis
  • 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis
  • cis-vaccenate biosynthesis
  • acetoin biosynthesis II
  • acridone alkaloid biosynthesis
  • acyl carrier protein metabolism
  • aflatoxins B1 and G1 biosynthesis
  • aflatoxins B2 and G2 biosynthesis
  • ammonium transport
  • asparaginyl-tRNAasn biosynthesis via transamidation
  • butanediol biosynthesis
  • CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis III
  • cinnamate esters biosynthesis
  • dhurrin degradation
  • fatty acid biosynthesis initiation II
  • fatty acid biosynthesis initiation III
  • fatty acids biosynthesis (yeast)
  • Fe(II)-NA phloem transport
  • furaneol biosynthesis
  • geosmin biosynthesis
  • glycine betaine biosynthesis V (from glycine)
  • gramicidin S biosynthesis
  • kanosamine biosynthesis
  • linoleate biosynthesis I (plants)
  • linoleate biosynthesis II (animals)
  • lupinate biosynthesis
  • molybdenum cofactor (sulfide) biosynthesis
  • molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide biosynthesis
  • nicotianamine biosynthesis
  • nitrate reduction VI (assimilatory)
  • oleate biosynthesis II (animals)
  • palmitate biosynthesis I (animals)
  • palmitate biosynthesis II (bacteria and plants)
  • rifamycin B biosynthesis
  • stearate biosynthesis I (animals)
  • stearate biosynthesis II (plants)
  • sterigmatocystin biosynthesis
  • sulfoacetaldehyde degradation II
  • trehalose biosynthesis VI
  • trehalose biosynthesis VII
  • versicolorin B biosynthesis
  • wound-induced proteolysis
  • New Pathways from PMN (http://plantcyc.org)

  • amygdalin and prunasin degradation
  • apigenin glycosides biosynthesis
  • arabidiol biosynthesis
  • baruol biosynthesis
  • crepenynic acid biosynthesis
  • lotaustralin biosynthesis
  • lotaustralin degradation
  • marneral biosynthesis
  • sorgoleone biosynthesis
  • thalianol and derivatives biosynthesis
  • vernolic acid biosynthesis
  • xylogalacturonan biosynthesis
  • New Pathways from EcoCyc

  • biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose-modified lipid A
  • formate to dimethyl sulfoxide electron transfer
  • formate to nitrate electron transfer
  • formate to trimethylamine N-oxide electron transfer
  • NADH to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer
  • NADH to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer
  • NADH to dimethyl sulfoxide reductase electron transfer
  • NADH to fumarate electron transfer
  • NADH to nitrate reductase electron transfer
  • NADH to trimethylamine N-oxide reductase electron transfer
  • oleate β-oxidation
  • succinate to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer
  • succinate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer
  • New Pathways from SGD (http://pathway.yeastgenome.org/biocyc/)

  • acetoin biosynthesis III
  • butanediol degradation
  • New Superpathways

  • superpathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis
  • superpathway of rifamycin B biosynthesis
  • superpathway of linamarin and lotaustralin biosynthesis
  • Updated Pathways

  • fatty acid biosynthesis initiation I
  • petroselinate biosynthesis
  • palmitoleate biosynthesis
  • CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I
  • CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II
  • oleate biosynthesis I (plants)
  • superpathway of fatty acid biosynthesis II (plant)

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 12.1

    Released on June 27, 2008

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1138
    Reactions 7114
    Enzymes 4986
    Chemical Compounds 7140
    Organisms 1505
    Citations 17340

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 101[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 13 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 114 new and updated pathways. The N-acetylneuraminate and N-acetylmannosamine degradation pathway was imported from EcoCyc. We also created 20 new superpathways.

    We have undertaken a major effort to enhance the curation of quinone biosynthesis to cover the different varieties of quinones found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. These include menaquinones, demethylmenaquinones and ubiquinones of different tail length, phylloquinone, plastoquinone and rhodoquinones, as well as the plant quinones alizarin, lawsone and juglone.

    We also covered the microbial biosynthesis of CDP-3,6-dideoxyhexoses CDP-abequose, CDP-ascarylose, CDP-paratose and CDP-tyvelose which are important O-antigens of several enterobacterial species. In the area of microbial secondary metabolism, we added pathways for the biosynthesis of staphyloxanthin, tuberculosinol and the antibiotics albaflavenone, puromycin, streptomycin, terpentecin and validamycin A.

    In plant metabolism we continue to expand our coverage of secondary metabolite biosynthesis including alkaloids, quinones (see above), terpenoids and isoflavonoid glycosides. We have added pathways for the biosynthesis of metabolites significant in plant defense such as maysin. We also added pathways of medical significance, including the biosynthesis of cocaine, quinine, hyperforin, hypericin and colchicine. Newly added pathways of industrial significance included rubber, urushiol and various scent volatiles. Pathways of primary metabolism include the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides such as xylan and xyloglucan, several auxin metabolism pathways and biosynthetic pathways for wax esters, hypusine and homospermidine. We also curated two pathways involved in the production of phytosiderophores, as well as pathways involving iron chelation and transport.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • (-)-(4S)-limonene degradation
  • (+)-(4R)-limonene degradation
  • (4R)-carveol and (4R)-dihydrocarveol degradation
  • (4R)-carvone biosynthesis
  • (4S)-carveol and (4S)-dihydrocarveol degradation
  • 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I
  • 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis II (plants)
  • 2'-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA biosynthesis II (malonate decarboxylase)
  • 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate biosynthesis
  • 2'-deoxymugineic acid phytosiderophore biosynthesis
  • 2-keto-L-gulonate biosynthesis
  • 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle
  • 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate biosynthesis
  • afrormosin conjugates interconversion
  • albaflavenone biosynthesis
  • alizarin biosynthesis
  • all-trans undecaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • beta-carboline biosynthesis
  • bornyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • CDP-3,6-dideoxyhexose biosynthesis
  • CDP-abequose biosynthesis
  • CDP-ascarylose biosynthesis
  • CDP-paratose biosynthesis
  • CDP-tyvelose biosynthesis
  • cinchona alkaloids biosynthesis
  • cocaine biosynthesis
  • colchicine biosynthesis
  • dalcochinin biosynthesis
  • dalpatein and dalnigrein biosynthesis
  • decaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • demethylmenaquinone-6 biosynthesis
  • demethylmenaquinone-8 biosynthesis
  • demethylmenaquinone-9 biosynthesis
  • dodecaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • ephedrine biosynthesis
  • epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis
  • eugenol and isoeugenol biosynthesis
  • Fe(III)-phytosiderophore transport
  • Fe(III)-reduction and Fe(II) transport
  • geraniol and geranial biosynthesis
  • geranyl acetate biosynthesis
  • glutaminyl-tRNAgln biosynthesis via transamidation
  • heliocides biosynthesis
  • heme degradation
  • heptaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • homospermidine biosynthesis
  • hydroxylated mugineic acid phytosiderophore biosynthesis
  • hyperforin biosynthesis
  • hypericin biosynthesis
  • hypoglycin biosynthesis
  • hypusine biosynthesis
  • IAA conjugate biosynthesis III
  • IAA degradation V
  • IAA degradation VI
  • IAA degradation VII
  • juglone biosynthesis
  • lacinilene C biosynthesis
  • lawsone biosynthesis
  • linear furonocoumarin biosynthesis II
  • magnoflorine biosynthesis
  • malonate degradation
  • maysin biosynthesis
  • menaquinone-10 biosynthesis
  • menaquinone-11 biosynthesis
  • menaquinone-12 biosynthesis
  • menaquinone-13 biosynthesis
  • menaquinone-6 biosynthesis
  • menaquinone-7 biosynthesis
  • menaquinone-9 biosynthesis
  • N-acetylneuraminate and N-acetylmannosamine degradation
  • nonaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • octaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • oligomeric urushiol biosynthesis
  • phycocyanobilin biosynthesis
  • phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis
  • puromycin biosynthesis
  • rhodoquinone-10 biosynthesis
  • rhodoquinone-9 biosynthesis
  • rubber biosynthesis
  • simple coumarins biosynthesis
  • staphyloxanthin biosynthesis
  • streptomycin biosynthesis
  • t-anethole biosynthesis
  • TCA cycle variation IV
  • terpentecin biosynthesis
  • trichloroethylene degradation
  • tridecaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • tuberculosinol biosynthesis
  • ubiquinone-10 biosynthesis (eukaryotic)
  • ubiquinone-10 biosynthesis (prokaryotic)
  • ubiquinone-7 biosynthesis (eukaryotic)
  • ubiquinone-7 biosynthesis (prokaryotic)
  • ubiquinone-8 biosynthesis (eukaryotic)
  • ubiquinone-9 biosynthesis (eukaryotic)
  • ubiquinone-9 biosynthesis (prokaryotic)
  • usnate biosynthesis
  • validamycin A biosynthesis
  • wax esters biosynthesis I
  • wax esters biosynthesis II
  • xylan biosynthesis
  • xyloglucan biosynthesis
  • New Superpathways

  • bacillibactin biosynthesis
  • butanediol biosynthesis I
  • butanediol biosynthesis II
  • heme biosynthesis I
  • heme biosynthesis II
  • superpathway of carotenoid biosynthesis
  • superpathway of CDP-3,6-dideoxyhexose biosynthesis
  • superpathway of demethylmenaquinone-6 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of demethylmenaquinone-8 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of demethylmenaquinone-9 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis I (via mevalonate)
  • superpathway of menaquinone-10 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of menaquinone-11 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of menaquinone-12 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of menaquinone-13 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of menaquinone-6 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of menaquinone-7 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of menaquinone-8 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of phylloquinone biosynthesis
  • superpathway of plastoquinone biosynthesis
  • Updated Pathways

  • 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis II (plants)
  • 2'-(5''-phosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA biosynthesis I (citrate lyase)
  • calystegine biosynthesis
  • de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotedes
  • enterobactin biosynthesis
  • geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis
  • IAA degradation IV
  • NAD biosynthesis III
  • photosynthesis, light reactions
  • plastoquinone biosynthesis
  • sanguinarine and macarpine biosynthesis
  • secologanin and strictosidine biosynthesis
  • superpathway of geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis II (via MEP)
  •  


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 12.0

    Released on April 1, 2008

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1036
    Reactions 6739
    Enzymes 4731
    Chemical Compounds 6719
    Organisms 1108
    Citations 16335

    New and Updated Pathways

    We have added 51[more info] new pathways to MetaCyc since the last release.  In addition, we significantly revised 15 pathways by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 66 new and updated pathways.

    Among the new microbial pathways curated in MetaCyc during the last quarter are a newly discovered autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway (comprising the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle and glyoxylate assimilation pathway), several pathways for the degradation of s-triazine herbicides such as atrazine, the biosynthesis of several GDP-sugars, and the biosynthesis and degradation pathways of itaconate.  In the area of antibiotic biosynthesis we added a pathway for (5R)-carbapenem which is a member of the carbapenem class of beta-lactam antibiotics, and pathways for the biosynthesis of fosfomycin and the phenazine compounds phenazine-1-carboxylate and 2-hydroxyphenazine.  We also added a CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway from EcoCyc, and created a superpathway of atrazine degradation..

    We also added a pathway for 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis in higher and lower eukaryotes.  In addition, we  imported 9 new pathways from YeastCyc (part of the Saccharomyces Genome Database) that describe pathways found in that organism.

    In plant metabolism we curated a variety of new pathways for the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites.  These include:  the sesquiterpenoids farnesene, germacrene and costunolide; the toxic terpenoid gossypol found in cotton; three triterpene saponin glycosylation pathways; the alkaloids capsaicin, hemlock poisons gamma-coniciene and coniine, and piperine (which gives black pepper its pungent flavor); rotenoid; and the isoflavans vestitol and sativan.  We also added a superpathway of formononetin derivative biosynthesis showing the formation of two of the many isoflavonoids derived from this compound, as well as the production of a storage form of formononetin.  In general these plant secondary metabolites are involved in plant defense and/or stress responses and many have potential applications in medicine and agriculture.  Also in the area of plant secondary metabolism we curated new pathways for the degradation of ethiin, alliin and isoalliin, and we updated the pathway for hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis.

    In addition, we curated biosynthetic pathways for the plant scent volatiles phenylethanol and trimethoxybenzene.  In the area of plant energy metabolism we added a pathway for the Rubisco shunt, a bypass of glycolysis providing an efficient way for plants to convert carbohydrates into seed storage oil.

    Other Improvements

    Update of EC Reactions

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of January 2008) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by  incorporating supplement 13 (see Enzyme Nomenclature Supplement 13).

    We would like to welcome a new curator,  Dr. A. Karthikeyan (Karthik) from the Carnegie Institution, to the MetaCyc team.

    List of New and Updated Pathways

    New Pathways

  • β-alanine biosynthesis V
  • γ-coniciene and coniine biosynthesis
  • (5R)-carbapenem biosynthesis
  • 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene biosynthesis
  • 2-hydroxyphenazine biosynthesis
  • 2-methylcitrate cycle II
  • 3-hydroxypropionate cycle
  • 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes)
  • 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis II
  • alliin degradation
  • atrazine degradation II
  • atrazine degradation III
  • capsaicin biosynthesis
  • costunolide biosynthesis
  • deethylsimazine degradation
  • ethiin degradation
  • ethylmalonyl pathway
  • farnesene biosynthesis
  • fosfomycin biosynthesis
  • GDP-α-D-perosamine biosynthesis
  • GDP-6-deoxy-D-talose biosynthesis
  • GDP-L-colitose biosynthesis
  • germacrene biosynthesis
  • glutamate degradation X
  • glycogen degradation II
  • glyoxylate assimilation
  • gossypol biosynthesis
  • isoalliin degradation
  • isopropylamine degradation
  • itaconate biosynthesis
  • itaconate degradation
  • phenazine-1-carboxylate biosynthesis
  • phenylethanol biosynthesis
  • piperine biosynthesis
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate VIII
  • rotenoid biosynthesis
  • Rubisco shunt
  • saponin biosynthesis II
  • saponin biosynthesis III
  • saponin biosynthesis IV
  • vestitol and sativan biosynthesis
  • Imported Pathways

  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation III
  • 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis III (yeast)
  • CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I
  • glycine biosynthesis III
  • glycine biosynthesis IV
  • hexaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • NAD salvage pathway III
  • phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis
  • tyrosine degradation III
  • ubiquinone-6 biosynthesis
  • Superpathways

  • superpathway of atrazine degradation
  • Superpathway of formononetin derivative biosynthesis
  • Updated Pathways

  • 2-methylcitrate cycle I
  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation III
  • arginine degradation IX (arginine:pyruvate transaminase pathway)
  • arginine degradation IX (arginine:pyruvate transaminase pathway)
  • atrazine degradation I (aerobic)
  • cyanurate degradation
  • glycine biosynthesis I
  • glyoxylate cycle
  • hexaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis
  • nicotinate degradation III
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis I
  • polyisoprenoid biosynthesis (E. coli)
  • tyrosine degradation III
  • ubiquinone-6 biosynthesis

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 11.6

    Released on December 5, 2007

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 1010
    Reactions 6576
    Enzymes 4582
    Chemical Compounds 6561
    Organisms 1077
    Citations 15875

    New and Updated Pathways

    79 new pathways (including one superpathway) were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 30 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 109 new and updated pathways.

    Major additions include a much better coverage for the microbial degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, urate and allantoin metabolism, and acetate metabolism. We have added pathways for the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll a, several GDP-sugars, the compatible solutes glucosyl- and mannosyl-glycerate, the enzyme cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and several naturally occurring β-lactam antibiotics, including the penam, ceph-3-em and clavam classes. We also significantly enhanced coverage of nitrate reduction, and added pathways for propylene degradation, sorbitol biosynthesis, and many other miscellaneous pathways.

    In plant metabolism we curated six new secondary metabolic pathways. The new pathways include biosynthesis of the fragrance compound linalool and the flavor compounds of vanilla, garlic, onion and chive, biosynthesis of the toxic metabolites α-solanine and α-chaconine, which are found in potatoes, and biosynthesis of two terpenoid drugs: the important anticancer drug taxol, which is produced in yew trees, and the multi-use drug ginseng.

    We would like to welcome new members to the MetaCyc team: Drs. Lukas Mueller and Anuradha Pujar from Cornell University, and Dr. Kate Dreher from the Carnegie Institution.

    New Pathways

  • 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation
  • 2,6-dinitrotoluene degradation
  • 2-nitrobenzoate degradation I
  • 2-nitrobenzoate degradation II
  • 2-nitrophenol degradation
  • 2-nitrotoluene degradation
  • 4-chloronitrobenzene degradation
  • 4-nitrotoluene degradation II
  • acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA
  • acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I
  • acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II
  • acetate formation from acetyl-CoA III (succinate)
  • acetone degradation II (to acetoacetate)
  • acetyl-CoA fermentation to butyrate II
  • adenosine 5'-monophosphate recycling
  • allantoin degradation to glyoxylate I
  • allantoin degradation to glyoxylate II
  • allantoin degradation to glyoxylate III
  • bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis
  • cardiolipin biosynthesis I
  • cephalosporin C biosynthesis
  • cephamycin C biosynthesis
  • chlorophyllide a biosynthesis II
  • clavulanate biosynthesis
  • CO2 fixation into oxaloacetate
  • de novo biosynthesis of uridine-5'-monophosphate
  • deacetylcephalosporin C biosynthesis
  • epoxysqualene biosynthesis
  • fructose degradation
  • GDP-glucose biosynthesis
  • GDP-mannose biosynthesis I
  • GDP-mannose biosynthesis II
  • ginsenoside biosynthesis
  • glucosylglycerate biosynthesis
  • isopenicillin N biosynthesis
  • linalool biosynthesis
  • L-lactaldehyde degradation (aerobic)
  • L-lactaldehyde degradation (anaerobic)
  • mannosylglycerate biosynthesis I
  • mannosylglycerate biosynthesis II
  • nitrate reduction III (dissimilatory)
  • nitrate reduction IV (dissimilatory)
  • nitrate reduction V (assimilatory)
  • nitrobenzene degradation I
  • nitrobenzene degradation II
  • penicillin K biosynthesis
  • phosphatidyl-ethanolamine biosynthesis
  • propylene degradation
  • pyrimidine ribonucleotides interconversion
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate V
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate VI
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate VII
  • shikonin biosynthesis
  • sorbitol biosynthesis II
  • steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthesis
  • succinate fermentation to butyrate
  • sulfolipid biosynthesis
  • taxol biosynthesis
  • TCA cycle variation III (higher eukaryotes)
  • tetrahydrobioprein biosynthesis I
  • tetrahydrobioprein biosynthesis II
  • tryptophan degradation IX
  • urate biosynthesis
  • urate degradation to allantoin
  • urea degradation I
  • urea degradation II
  • vanilla biosynthesis
  • Superpathways

  • superpathway of penicillin, cephalosporin and cephamycin biosynthesis
  • Updated Pathways

  • 4-nitrobenzoate degradation
  • 4-nitrotoluene degradation I
  • 4-toluenecarboxylate degradation
  • 4-toluenesulfonate degradation I
  • acetyl-CoA fermentation to butyrate II
  • acetylene degradation
  • cardiolipin biosynthesis II
  • chlorophyll cycle
  • chlorophyllide a biosynthesis I
  • de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides
  • fatty acid β-oxidation IV (plant, unsaturated, even number)
  • fatty acid activation
  • glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate)
  • incomplete reductive TCA cycle
  • methionine biosynthesis I
  • methionine salvage pathway
  • NAD/NADH phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
  • nitrate reduction I (denitrification)
  • octane oxidation
  • superpathway of allantoin degradation (E. coli)
  • superpathway of allantoin degradation in plants
  • superpathway of allantoin degradation in yeast
  • superpathway of C1 compounds oxidation to CO2
  • superpathway of purines degradation in plants
  • superpathway of sulfur amino acid biosynthesis (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • taurine biosynthesis
  • thiocyanate degradation I
  • thiocyanate degradation II
  • ureide biosynthesis
  • very long chain fatty acid biosynthesis

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 11.5

    Released on August 15, 2007

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 977
    Reactions 6483
    Enzymes 4332
    Chemical Compounds 6375
    Organisms 1029
    Citations 15199

    New and Updated Pathways

    10 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 5 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 15 new and updated pathways.

    In microbial metabolism we curated 7 new pathways, incorporated one new pathway from EcoCyc, and significantly enhanced 5 existing pathways, for a total of 13 pathways.

    We have updated our coverage of the biosynthesis of adenosylcobalamin (vitamin B12), one of the most structurally complex small molecules made in nature. MetaCyc pathways describe both the aerobic and anaerobic biosynthetic routes, and the synthesis of one of its precursors, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). We also added a pathway for biosynthesis of the important vitamin L-ascorbate (vitamin C) in bacteria, a pathway for the biosynthesis of the amino sugar donor UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and pathways for degradation of the pentose sugars arabinose and xylose.

    In mammalian metabolism we curated two new pathways: a pathway for biosynthesis of L-ascorbate (vitamin C) in higher animals, and a pathway for degradation of the sugar acid glucuronate.

    New Microbial Pathways

  • 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole biosynthesis
  • L-ascorbate biosynthesis II
  • D-arabinose degradation III
  • L-arabinose degradation II
  • L-arabinose degradation III
  • UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine biosynthesis II
  • xylose degradation II
  • A New Microbial Pathway from EcoCyc

  • chitobiose degradation
  • New Mammalian Pathways

  • L-ascorbate biosynthesis III
  • glucuronate degradation
  • Updated Microbial Pathways

  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion)
  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation)
  • adenosylcobalamin salvage from cobinamide and cobalamin
  • xylitol degradation
  • Superpathway of pentose and pentitol degradation

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 11.1

    Released on May 25, 2007

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 966
    Reactions 6464
    Enzymes 4271
    Chemical Compounds 6354
    Organisms 1023
    Citations 14937

    New and Updated Pathways

    39 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 31 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information. We also created 1 new superpathway, for a total of 71 new and updated pathways.

    In microbial metabolism we curated 20 new pathways, incorporated 6 new EcoCyc pathways, and significantly enhanced 31 existing pathways, for a total of 57 pathways.

    Several topics received special attention during this release. We have reorganized and significantly expanded our coverage of fermentation pathways, the metabolism of the amino acids glutamate, glutamine, aspartate and asparagine, the degradation of the pesticide parathion and related compounds, and the metabolism of the vitamins B6 and B12. In addition we added or revised many pathways covering a wide range of topics, including purine degradation, the reductive monocarboxylate cycle, and polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis, to name a few.

    In plant metabolism we added 13 new pathways and one superpathway.  Five well-known alkaloid biosynthesis pathways complete the coverage of this domain. In addition, we added two biosynthetic pathways of hydroxycinnamic acid amides. The serotonin amides are reported to be antioxidants, and the tyramine amides, widespread in plants, are cell wall constituents playing a role in cell wall reinforcement and protection of plants against pathogen infections. Finally, we curated six new  pathways for the biosynthesis of phenylpropenoids belonging to the class of lignans and hydrolyzable tannins, a group of compounds reported to have, amongst other things, antioxidant and antitumor properties.  A superpathway of hydrolyzable tannins was also created.

    Special thanks: We bid a fond farewell to our colleagues Drs. Sue Rhee, Peifen Zhang, Hartmut Foerster, and Chris Tissier of the Carnegie Institution. The Carnegie group has curated a large number of plant pathways and enzymes into MetaCyc, making it the most comprehensive existing database on plant metabolism.  Thank you for your many contributions to MetaCyc, and to the curation procedures and software behind it.

    New Microbial Pathways

  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis from cobyrinate a,c-diamide I
  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis from cobyrinate a,c-diamide II
  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis I (early cobalt insertion)
  • diethylphosphate degradation
  • glycolysis V
  • methanol oxidation to formaldehyde
  • methyl parathion degradation
  • p-nitrophenol degradation I
  • p-nitrophenol degradation II
  • paraoxon degradation
  • purine degradation II (anaerobic)
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate II
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate III
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate IV
  • pyruvate fermentation to ethanol I
  • pyruvate fermentation to ethanol II
  • pyruvate fermentation to lactate
  • pyruvate fermentation to propionate II (acrylate pathway)
  • reductive monocarboxylic acid cycle
  • UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine biosynthesis
  • New Microbial Pathways from EcoCyc

  • 2-O-α-mannosyl-D-glycerate degradation
  • aminopropylcadaverine biosynthesis
  • arginine dependent acid resistance
  • glutamate dependent acid resistance
  • L-galactonate degradation
  • melibiose degradation
  • Updated Microbial Pathways

  • adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation)
  • asparagine biosynthesis I
  • asparagine degradation I
  • aspartate biosynthesis
  • aspartate degradation I
  • aspartate degradation II
  • Bifidobacterium shunt
  • cyclohexanol degradation
  • formaldehyde assimilation III (dihydroxyacetone cycle)
  • glutamate biosynthesis II
  • glutamate biosynthesis IV
  • glutamine biosynthesis I
  • glutamine degradation I
  • glutamine degradation II
  • glycine biosynthesis II
  • glycine cleavage complex
  • heterolactic fermentation I
  • hexitol fermentation to lactate, formate, ethanol and acetate
  • homolactic fermentation
  • L-alanine fermentation to propionate and acetate
  • methionine biosynthesis I
  • N-acetylneuraminate degradation
  • parathion degradation
  • polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis
  • purine degradation III (anaerobic)
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate I
  • pyruvate fermentation to propionate I
  • reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway
  • superpathway of glutamate and glutamine biosynthesis
  • UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis II
  • vitamin B6 degradation
  • New Plant Pathways

  • bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
  • cornusiin E biosynthesis
  • gallotannin biosynthesis
  • gramine biosynthesis
  • hydroxycinnamic acid serotonin amides biosynthesis
  • hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides biosynthesis
  • laudanine biosynthesis
  • lupanine biosynthesis
  • matairesinol biosynthesis
  • palmatine biosynthesis
  • pentagalloylglucose biosynthesis
  • podophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin biosynthesis
  • sesamin biosynthesis
  • New Superpathways

  • superpathway of hydrolyzable tannin biosynthesis

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 11.0

    Released on March 16, 2007

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 935
    Reactions 6262
    Enzymes 3995
    Chemical Compounds 6218
    Organisms 952
    Citations 12729

    New and Updated Pathways

    47 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 26 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information. We also created 12 new superpathways, for a total of 85 new and updated pathways.

    In microbial metabolism we curated 16 new pathways, incorporated 4 new EcoCyc pathways and one ScoCyc pathway, and significantly enhanced 20 existing pathways, for a total of 41 pathways.

    Topics that were covered include the metabolism of the toxic compounds methylglyoxal and phenylmercury acetate, the degradation of the amino acids alanine and threonine, and the degradation of miscellaneous aromatic and non-aromatic compounds including phenol, benzene, catechol, toluene, naphthalene, xylene, acrylonitrile, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and acetone. We also modified several pathways of sugar metabolism. In addition, we incorporated 4 new pathways from EcoCyc, describing the degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, and a Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) pathway for the biosynthesis of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin, which was submitted by Veronica Armendarez of the  John Innes Centre. Thank you Veronica!

    In plant metabolism we added 26 new pathways, and enhanced 6 pathways, for a total of 32 pathways.

    A special focus was given to the metabolism of betalains, which constitute chromo-alkaloid pigments that replace anthocyanins in the plant order Caryophyllales.  The lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway, which leads to the biosynthesis of a wide variety of compounds such as jasmonic acid, volatile aldehydes and alcohols, alpha ketols, and divinyl ethers, has been extensively overhauled. MetaCyc now contains the 9-LOX, 13-LOX and their corresponding AOS (allene oxide synthase), HPL (hydroperoxide lyase) and DES (divinyl ether synthase) branches curated in separate pathways.  An exhaustive list of pathways involved in the biosynthesis of oleoresin compounds found in coniferous plants have been added to the database.  Finally, a number of new pathways concerning various compound classes, such as terpenoids (DMNT and crocetin biosynthesis) have also been added.

    We have also extensively updated pathways relating to glycolysis and related pathways (starch biosynthesis and TCA cycle) in plants by adding a comprehensive list of cytosolic and plastidic enzymes, as well as pathways concerning homomethonine and jasmonic acid biosynthesis.

    Update of EC Reactions

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of January 2007) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by  incorporating supplement 12 (see Enzyme Nomenclature Supplement 12).

     

    New Microbial Pathways

  • acetone degradation (to methylglyoxal)
  • aminopropanol biosynthesis
  • aminopropanol phosphate biosynthesis
  • benzene degradation
  • catechol degradation to 2-oxopent-4-enoate II
  • methylglyoxal degradation III
  • methylglyoxal degradation IV
  • methylglyoxal degradation V
  • methylglyoxal degradation VII
  • methylglyoxal degradation VIII
  • m-xylene degradation to m-toluate
  • naphthalene degradation
  • phenol degradation I (aerobic)
  • p-xylene degradation to p-toluate
  • threonine degradation I
  • threonine degradation IV
  • New Microbial Pathways from EcoCyc

  • degradation of purine deoxyribonucleosides
  • degradation of purine ribonucleosides
  • degradation of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides
  • degradation of pyrimidine ribonucleosides
  • A New Microbial Pathway from ScoCyc

  • actinorhodin biosynthesis
  • Updated Microbial Pathways

  • acrylonitrile degradation
  • alanine degradation II
  • alanine degradation III
  • alanine degradation IV
  • β-alanine biosynthesis III
  • D-lactate fermentation to propionate and acetate
  • Entner-Doudoroff pathway III (semi-phosphorylative)
  • galactonate degradation
  • galactose degradation I
  • GDP-D-rhamnose biosynthesis
  • glucose degradation (oxidative)
  • glycolysis I
  • 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation
  • methylglyoxal degradation II
  • phenylmercury acetate degradation
  • superpathway of methylglyoxal degradation in E. coli
  • superpathway of threonine metabolism
  • threonine degradation II
  • threonine degradation III (to methylglyoxal)
  • toluene degradation to benzoate
  • New Plant Pathways

  • 13-LOX and 13-HPL pathway
  • 9-LOX and 9-AOS pathway
  • 9-LOX and 9-HPL pathway
  • abietic acid biosynthesis
  • amaranthin biosynthesis
  • betacyanin biosynthesis
  • betacyanin biosynthesis (via dopamine)
  • betalain biosynthesis (to betalamic acid)
  • betanidin degradation
  • betaxanthin biosynthesis
  • betaxanthin biosynthesis (via dopamine)
  • betaxanthin biosynthesis (via dopaxanthin)
  • crocetin biosynthesis
  • crocetin esters biosynthesis
  • dehydroabietic acid biosynthesis
  • divinyl ether biosynthesis I (9-LOX)
  • divinyl ether biosynthesis II (13-LOX)
  • DMNT biosynthesis
  • isopimaric acid biosynthesis
  • levopimaric acid biosynthesis
  • neoabietic acid biosynthesis
  • oleoresin monoterpene volatiles biosynthesis
  • oleoresin sesquiterpene volatiles biosynthesis
  • palustric acid biosynthesis
  • S-methylmethionine cycle
  • Updated Plant Pathways

  • glycolysis IV
  • homomethionine biosynthesis
  • jasmonic acid biosynthesis
  • phospholipid biosynthesis II
  • starch degradation
  • sucrose degradation III
  • New Superpathways

  • superpathway of betalain biosynthesis
  • superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis (plants), pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle
  • superpathway of diterpene resin acids biosynthesis
  • superpathway of lipoxygenase
  • superpathway of methionine biosynthesis (by sulfhydrylation)
  • superpathway of methionine degradation
  • superpathway of oleoresin turpentine biosynthesis
  • superpathway of sulfide oxidation (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans)
  • superpathway of sulfur metabolism (Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens)
  • superpathway of sulfur oxidation (Acidianus ambivalens)
  • superpathway of thiosulfate metabolism (Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans)


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 10.6

    Released on January 10, 2007

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 879
    Reactions 6113
    Enzymes 3841
    Chemical Compounds 5978
    Organisms 902
    Citations 11934

    New and Updated Pathways

    93 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 32 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 125 updated pathways.

    In microbial metabolism we added 37 new pathways, and significantly enhanced 27 pathways, for a total of 64 pathways.

    We expanded our coverage of lysine degradation by adding five new pathways from bacteria, yeasts, fungi and mammals. We also added a new superpathway that provides an overview of the many different initial reactions in lysine degradation. Additional degradation topics covered in this release include new and modified pathways for the degradation of phenylalanine, ornithine, nitroethane, orthanilate, sucrose, carbon tetrachloride, 2-nitropropane and carbon disulfide. New and modified biosynthetic pathways include homocysteine, siroheme amide, dolichyldiphosphooligosaccharide and phenylalanine. Other pathways include new variants for hydrogen oxidation and the reductive TCA cycle, an improved Calvin cycle, and an expanded methanogenesis from carbon dioxide pathway.

    We significantly expanded our coverage of microbial sulfur metabolism, adding and modifying pathways for the oxidation, reduction and disproportionation of sulfur compounds, including the inorganic compounds sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfite and sulfate, as well as organosulfur compounds such as homocysteine, methionine, sulfoacetaldehyde and benzenesulfonate.

    In plant metabolism we added 52 new pathways, and enhanced 5 pathways, for a total of 57 pathways.

    Eight new plant alkaloid biosynthesis pathways have been added to this release, improving the comprehensiveness of well-characterized alkaloid pathways in the MetaCyc collection. In addition, nine biosynthetic pathways of unusual fatty acids found in certain plant seed oils have been reviewed. Several metabolic pathways of carbohydrates (e.g. the raffinose series , including stachyose, ajugose, etc), carotenoid and anthocyanin pigments (e.g. astaxanthin, bixin, shisonin, gentiodelphin and anthocyanidin) and flavonols (e.g. the pharmaceutically important syringetin or the food aroma compound raspberry ketone) have been introduced. Finally, we added a pathway for the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (moco), which binds the transition element molybdenum.

    We have also updated pathways in the areas of flavonoid, phytoalexins and lipid biosynthesis.

    In animal metabolism we imported 3 new pathways from HumanCyc, and curated one new pathway, for a total of 4 pathways.

    Our coverage of cholesterol biosynthesis was expanded by adding two new pathways and a superpathway from HumanCyc.  The new pathways show other biosynthetic intermediates that can occur, and the superpathway provides an overview of these routes. Another new pathway describes the degradation of L-cysteine in mammals.

    Special thanks: We would like to thank Dr. Ruth Welti for her help in updating the glycolipid and phospholipid desaturation pathways.

    New Microbial Pathways

  • carbon disulfide oxidation II (aerobic)
  • carbon tetrachloride degradation I
  • carbon tetrachloride degradation II
  • carbon tetrachloride degradation III
  • homocysteine biosynthesis
  • hydrogen oxidation II (aerobic)
  • lysine degradation IV
  • lysine degradation V
  • lysine degradation VI
  • lysine degradation VII
  • lysine degradation VIII
  • lysine degradation IX
  • nitroethane degradation
  • reductive TCA cycle II
  • siroheme amide biosynthesis
  • sucrose degradation IV
  • sulfate activation for sulfonation
  • sulfide oxidation II (sulfide dehydrogenase)
  • sulfide oxidation IV (sulfur dioxygenase)
  • sulfite oxidation I (sulfite oxidoreductase)
  • sulfite oxidation II
  • sulfite oxidation III
  • sulfite oxidation IV
  • sulfur disproportionation II (aerobic)
  • sulfur reduction I
  • sulfur reduction II (via polysulfide)
  • tetrathionate oxidation
  • tetrathionate reduction I (to thiosulfate)
  • tetrathionate reductiuon II (to trithionate)
  • thiosulfate disproportionation I (thiol-dependent)
  • thiosulfate disproportionation II (non thiol-dependent)
  • thiosulfate disproportionation III (rhodanese)
  • thiosulfate oxidation II (multienzyme complex)
  • thiosulfate oxidation III (via tetrathionate)
  • New Animal Pathways

  • cholesterol biosynthesis II (via 24,25-dihydrolanosterol)
  • cholesterol biosynthesis III (via desmosterol)
  • L-cysteine degradation III
  • Updated Microbial Pathways

  • benzenesulfonate degradation
  • Calvin cycle
  • carbon disulfide oxidation I (anaerobic)
  • dolichyldiphosphooligosaccharide biosynthesis
  • homocysteine degradation
  • hydrogen oxidation I (aerobic)
  • interconversion of arginine, ornithine and proline (Stickland reaction)
  • L-cysteine degradation I
  • lysine degradation I
  • methanogenesis from CO2
  • methionine degradation I (to homocysteine)
  • 2-nitropropane degradation
  • ornithine degradation (proline biosynthesis)
  • orthanilate degradation
  • phenylalanine biosynthesis I
  • phenylalanine degradation II
  • sucrose degradation I
  • sulfate reduction I (assimilatory)
  • ulfate reduction II (assimilatory)
  • sulfate reduction III (dissimilatory)
  • sulfate reduction IV (dissimilatory)
  • sulfide oxidation I (sulfide-quinone reductase)
  • sulfoacetaldehyde degradation
  • sulfur disproportionation I (anaerobic)
  • sulfur oxidation I (aerobic)
  • sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent)
  • thiosulfate oxidation I (to tetrathionate)
  • New Plant Pathways

  • abscisic acid glucose ester biosynthesis
  • ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis
  • ajugose biosynthesis I (galactinol-dependent)
  • ajugose biosynthesis II (galactinol-independent)
  • α-amyrin biosynthesis
  • α-eleostearic acid biosynthesis
  • anthocyanidin sophoroside metabolism
  • arachidonate and eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis
  • astaxanthin biosynthesis
  • bixin biosynthesis
  • calendic acid biosynthesis
  • calystegine biosynthesis
  • canthaxanthin biosynthesis
  • chalcone 2'-O-glucoside biosynthesis
  • chrysin biosynthesis
  • chrysophanol biosynthesis
  • coumarin metabolism (to melilotic acid)
  • Δ5-eicosenoate biosynthesis
  • A series fagopyritols biosynthesis
  • B series fagopyritols biosynthesis
  • Δ6-hexadecenoate biosynthesis
  • dimorphecolate biosynthesis
  • esculetin biosynthesis
  • galactosylcyclitol biosynthesis
  • gentiodelphin biosynthesis
  • hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis
  • kaempferol glucoside biosynthesis (Arabidopsis)
  • kaempferol triglucoside biosynthesis
  • linear furanocoumarin biosynthesis
  • methylthiopropionate biosynthesis
  • molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis
  • N-glucosylnicotinate metabolism
  • nicotine biosynthesis
  • N-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium cation biosynthesis
  • palmitoleate biosynthesis
  • petroselinate biosynthesis
  • phaseic acid biosynthesis
  • punicic acid biosynthesis
  • pyridine nucleotide cycling (plants)
  • quercetin glucoside biosynthesis (Arabidopsis)
  • raspberry ketone biosynthesis
  • rutin biosynthesis
  • sanguinarine and macarpine biosynthesis
  • secologanin and strictosidine biosynthesis
  • shisonin biosynthesis
  • stachyose biosynthesis
  • syringetin biosynthesis
  • ternatin C5 biosynthesis
  • vindoline and vinblastine biosynthesis
  • Updated Plant Pathways

  • aurone biosynthesis
  • camalexin biosynthesis
  • flavonol biosynthesis
  • glycolipid desaturation pathway
  • phospholipid desaturation pathway
  • New Superpathways

  • superpathway of anthocyanin biosynthesis (from delphinidin-3-O-glucoside)
  • superpathway of anthocyanin biosynthesis (from pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside)
  • superpathway of anthocyanin biosynthesis (from cyanidin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside)
  • superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis
  • superpathway of lysine degradation
  • superpathway of sulfide oxidation (Starkeya novella)

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 10.5

    Released on September 8, 2006

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 800
    Reactions 5871
    Enzymes 3527
    Chemical Compounds 5253
    Organisms 729
    Citations 10658

     

    New and Updated Pathways

    44 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 24 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 68 updated pathways.

    In microbial metabolism we added 30 new pathways, and significantly enhanced 17 pathways, for a total of 47 pathways.

    New pathways include the biosynthesis of cell components such as tetrapyrroles, lipids and peptidoglycan, and the degradation of several aromatic compounds, including cyanurate, melamine, N-cyclopropylmelamine, and 4-toluenesulfonate.

    We significantly expanded our coverage of methanogenesis, adding pathways for the biosynthesis of several methanogenic cofactors including coenzyme B, coenzyme M, factor 420, factor 430, and methanofuran, a pathway for the regeneration of coenzyme B and coenzyme M from their heterosulfide, seven new pathways for methanogenesis from different substrates, and a lactate biosynthetic pathway from the methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, in which lactate is used as a precursor for factor 420.

    We also added two new superpathways for aerobic toluene degradation and the degradation of pentoses and pentitols, and imported 4 new pathways from EcoCyc, covering lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and the degradation of ethylene glycol.

    In addition to creating new pathways, we updated pre-existing pathways in the following areas: heme biosynthesis; lipoate biosynthesis; NAD biosynthesis; pentitol degradation; benzoyl-CoA degradation; other aromatic compounds degradation; and lysine degradation and fermentation.

    Finally, we reorganized some of our existing pathways, breaking them into several shorter conserved pathways which are linked to each other. Doing so decreases redundancy in MetaCyc, and will improve future pathway predictions by our PathoLogic software. Reorganized pathways include biosynthesis of tetrapyrrole-derived molecules, including heme, chlorophyll and cobalamine, and degradative pathways of aromatic compounds that proceed through the intermediates 2-oxopent-4-enoate and glutaryl-CoA.

    In plant metabolism we added 12 new pathways, and enhanced 7 pathways, for a total of 19 updated pathways.

    A variety of new plant pathways have been added to the database. They include acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, mitochondrial membrane lipid cardiolipin biosynthesis, activation of the secondary metabolite glucosinolate, and biosynthesis of the medicinal alkaloid morphine. Biosynthetic pathways of the phenylpropenoids ferulate, sinapate and coumarin have also been added. The former two compounds are precursors to UV-protecting hydroxycinnamyl esters in plants, whereas coumarins are recognized for their pharmacological and therapeutic properties in humans. Other new additions include the biosynthetic pathways of the important terpenoids artemisinin (the most potent anti-malaria drug) and soybean saponin, as well as salvianin, a major anthocyanin in the Labiatae family that contributes to flower coloration.

    We have also updated a number of existing pathways including abscisic acid and carotenoid biosyntheses, and several glucosinolate biosynthesis pathways.

    In animal metabolism we imported 2 new pathways from HumanCyc, covering the degradation of anandamide, a member of the endocannabinoid class of signaling lipids, and of dopamine, a neurotransmitter and physiological regulator.

    We would like to express our gratitude to Drs. Maor Bar-Peled, Ed Cahoon, Clint Chapple, Peter Facchini, Jonathan Page and David Seigler for their invaluable contribution to the identification and curation of many of the plant pathways in the last two MetaCyc releases.  We would also like to thank Dr. Rob Gunsalus for his suggestions concerning methanogenesis.

    New Microbial Pathways

  • coenzyme B/coenzyme M regeneration
  • cyanurate degradation
  • ethylene glycol degradation (from EcoCyc)
  • factor 420 biosynthesis
  • factor 420 polyglutamylation
  • factor 430 biosynthesis
  • glutaryl-CoA degradation
  • KDO2-lipid A biosynthesis I (from EcoCyc)
  • lactate biosynthesis
  • Lipid A-core biosynthesis (from EcoCyc)
  • lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation II (from EcoCyc)
  • melamine degradation
  • methanofuran biosynthesis
  • methanogenesis from dimethylamine
  • methanogenesis from dimethylsulfide
  • methanogenesis from methanethiol
  • methanogenesis from methylamine
  • methanogenesis from methylthiopropionate
  • methanogenesis from tetramethylammonium
  • methanogenesis from trimethylamine
  • methyl-coenzyme M oxidation to CO2
  • N-cyclopropylmelamine degradation
  • 2-oxopent-4-enoate degradation
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis II
  • siroheme biosynthesis
  • super pathway of aerobic toluene degradation
  • superpathway of pentose and pentitol degradation
  • tetrapyrrole biosynthesis I
  • tetrapyrrole biosynthesis II
  • 4-toluenesulfonate degradation II
  • New Animal Pathways

  • anandamide degradation (from HumanCyc)
  • dopamine degradation (from HumanCyc)
  • Updated Microbial Pathways

  • benzoyl-CoA degradation II (anaerobic)
  • benzoate degradation I (aerobic)
  • benzoyl-CoA degradation III (anaerobic)
  • D-arabitol degradation
  • heme biosynthesis I
  • heme biosynthesis II
  • lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation I
  • lysine degradation II
  • lysine fermentation to acetate and butyrate
  • methanogenesis from acetate
  • methanogenesis from methanol
  • NAD biosynthesis III
  • pentachlorophenol degradation
  • peptidoglycan biosynthesis I
  • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex pathway
  • ribitol degradation
  • xylitol degradation
  • New Pant Pathways

  • acetyl-CoA biosynthesis (from citrate)
  • artemisinin biosynthesis
  • capsanthin and capsorubin biosynthesis
  • cardiolipin biosynthesis
  • coumarin biosynthesis (via 2-coumarate)
  • ferulate and sinapate biosynthesis
  • glucosinolate breakdown
  • lactucaxanthin biosynthesis
  • morphine biosynthesis
  • salvianin biosynthesis
  • soybean saponin biosynthesis (via soyasapogenol B)
  • superpathway of acetyl-CoA biosynthesis
  • Updated Plant Pathways

  • abscisic acid biosynthesis
  • carotenoid biosynthesis
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from homomethionine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from phenylalanine
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from tryptophan
  • phospholipase pathway
  • triacylglycerol biosynthesis

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 10.1

    Released on May 19, 2006.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 759
    Reactions 5797
    Enzymes 3370
    Chemical Compounds 5095
    Organisms 686
    Citations 9799

    New and Updated Pathways

    47 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 21 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 68 updated pathways.

    In microbial/animal metabolism we added 11 new pathways, and significantly enhanced 13 pathways, for a total of 24 pathways.

    In central metabolism we have updated several pathways covering variants of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (both complete and incomplete cycles), glycolysis, and pyruvate fermentation. We updated our coverage of amino-acid biosynthesis and degradation pathways with new pathways for the biosynthesis of isoleucine, arginine, and β-alanine, and for the degradation of tyrosine, phenylalanine and hydroxyproline. We also added a new variant of 2-oxobutanoate degradation, and a new pathway for 2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis.

    In plant metabolism we added 36 new pathways, and enhanced 8 pathways, for a total of 44 pathways.

    New plant primary metabolism pathways include several pathways of fatty acid and sugar-nucleotide metabolism.

    New plant secondary metabolism pathways include the biosynthesis of several anthocyanins and the degradation of chlorophyll. In addition, we added four new pathways describing the biosynthesis of geranyl diphosphate, geranylgeranyl diphosphate and trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate, which simplify the metabolism of terpenoids. Moreover, four important biosynthetic pathways of Cannabis and hops (the latter being involved in the flavouring of beer) have been added to the database.

    We have also updated and revised several existing pathways: ascorbate biosynthesis; aurone biosynthesis; coenzyme A biosynthesis; isoflavonoid biosynthesis II; NAD/NADH phosphorylation and dephosphorylation; sulfate assimilation III; triacylglycerol degradation; and wighteone and luteone biosynthesis.

    Update of EC Reactions

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of February 2006) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by  incorporating supplement 11 (see Enzyme Nomenclature Supplement 11).

    New Microbial/Animal Pathways

  • arginine biosynthesis III
  • β-alanine biosynthesis IV
  • biotin-carboxyl carrier protein
  • 4-hydroxyproline degradation II
  • isoleucine biosynthesis II
  • isoleucine biosynthesis III
  • isoleucine biosynthesis IV
  • isoleucine biosynthesis V
  • 2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis
  • 2-oxobutanoate degradation I
  • tyrosine degradation II

    Updated Microbial/Animal Pathways

  • acetyl-coa fermentation to butyrate
  • CMP-KDO biosynthesis I
  • fatty acids biosynthesis (initial steps)
  • glycolysis III
  • 4-hydroxyproline degradation I
  • incomplete reductive TCA cycle
  • isoleucine biosynthesis I
  • 2-oxobutanoate degradation I
  • phenylalanine degradation I
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate and alanine
  • pyruvate fermentation to acetate and lactate
  • TCA cycle variation I
  • tyrosine degradation I

    New Plant Pathways

  • acacetin biosynthesis
  • acyl-ACP desaturation pathway
  • acyl-ACP thioesterase pathway
  • acyl-CoA synthetase pathway
  • acyl-CoA thioesterase pathway
  • anthocyanin biosynthesis (delphinidin 3-O-glucoside)
  • anthocyanin biosynthesis (pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside)
  • bitter acids biosynthesis
  • cannabinoid biosynthesis
  • chlorophyll a degradation
  • CMP-KDO biosynthesis II (from D-arabinose 5-phosphate)
  • cohumulone biosynthesis
  • 6'-deoxychalcone metabolism
  • fatty acid β-oxidation II (plant, saturated)
  • fatty acid β-oxidation III (plant, unsaturated, odd number)
  • fatty acid β-oxidation IV (plant, unsaturated, even number)
  • GDP-L-galactose biosynthesis
  • geranyldiphosphate biosynthesis
  • geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis I (cytosolic)
  • geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis II (plastidic)
  • hesperitin glycoside biosynthesis
  • humulone biosynthesis
  • leucodelphinidin biosynthesis
  • lysine biosynthesis VI
  • naringenin glycoside biosynthesis
  • pelargonidin conjugates biosynthesis
  • phytol salvage pathway
  • ponciretin biosynthesis
  • rose anthocyanin biosynthesis
  • sakuranetin biosynthesis
  • sphingolipid biosynthesis (plants)
  • superpathway of fatty acid biosynthesis II (plant)
  • trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • trigonelline biosynthesis
  • UDP-D-apiose biosynthesis (from UDP-D-glucuronate)
  • xanthohumol biosynthesis

    Updated Plant Pathways:

  • ascorbate biosynthesis
  • aurone biosynthesis
  • coenzyme A biosynthesis
  • isoflavonoid biosynthesis II
  • NAD/NADH phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
  • sulfate assimilation III
  • triacylglycerol degradation
  • wighteone and luteone biosynthesis


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 10.0

    Released on March 13, 2006.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 719
    Reactions 5598
    Enzymes 3165
    Chemical Compounds 4907
    Organisms 638
    Citations 9149

    New and Updated Pathways

    47 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 15 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 62 updated pathways.

    In microbial/animal metabolism we added 19 new pathways, and significantly enhanced 9 pathways, for a total of 28 pathways.

    Among the topics that received special attention this quarter were amino acid degradation pathways, including the branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), glutamate, methionine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. Two new degradation pathways of the aromatic pyridine ring were added: nicotinate degradation II, which is an aerobic pathway, and nicotinate degradation III, which is an anaerobic fermentation pathway. Nicotinate (also known as niacin, or vitamin B3) is important in both biological and industrial processes. Additionally, a superpathway of nicotinate degradation was created that includes all three pathway variants of nicotinate degradation.

    In plant metabolism we added 28 new pathways, and enhanced 6 pathways, for a total of 34 pathways.

    New plant primary metabolism pathways include biosynthesis of the the purine precursors of caffeine and theobromine, very long chain fatty acids, sorbitol, chlorophyll, gibberellin and its precursors, and phytyl-PP. A pathway involved in NAD/NADH phosphorylation and dephosphorylation was also added.

    New plant secondary metabolism pathways include the biosynthesis of an isoflavonoid (6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone), a flavone (luteolin), a flavonol (pinobanskin), a stilbene (pinosylvin) and a cinnamic acid derivative (rosmarinic acid). In addition, four new pathways describe the biosynthesis of the purine alkaloids caffeine and theobromine.

    We have also updated and revised several existing pathways, including ureide degradation, resveratrol biosynthesis, biotin biosynthesis, sorbitol utilization, gibberellin inactivation, and chlorophyllide a biosynthesis.

    New microbial/animal pathways:

  • 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid recycling
  • 2-keto glutarate dehydrogenase complex
  • ADP-L-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose biosynthesis
  • branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes
  • gibberellin biosynthesis IV (Gibberella fujikuroi)
  • glutamate degradation VI (to pyruvate)
  • glutamate degradation VIII (to propionate)
  • glycogen biosynthesis II (from UDP-D-Glucose)
  • isoleucine degradation II
  • leucine degradation II
  • leucine degradation III
  • methionine degradation III
  • mevalonate degradation
  • nicotinate degradation II
  • nicotinate degradation III
  • phenylalanine degradation III
  • superpathway of nicotinate degradation
  • tryptophan degradation VIII (to tryptophol)
  • valine degradation II

    Updated microbial/animal pathways:

  • glutamate degradation I
  • glutamate degradation II
  • glutamate degradation VII
  • glycolysis II
  • isoleucine degradation I
  • leucine degradation I
  • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
  • reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle
  • valine degradation I

    New plant pathways:

  • 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone biosynthesis
  • caffeine biosynthesis I
  • caffeine biosynthesis II (via paraxanthine)
  • chlorophyll a biosynthesis I
  • chlorophyll a biosynthesis II
  • chlorophyll cycle
  • ent-kaurene biosynthesis
  • GA12 biosynthesis
  • gibberellin biosynthesis I (non C-3, non C-13 hydroxylation)
  • gibberellin biosynthesis II (early C-3 hydroxylation)
  • gibberellin biosynthesis III (early C-13 hydroxylation)
  • luteolin biosynthesis
  • NAD/NADH phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
  • phytyl-PP biosynthesis
  • pinobanksin biosynthesis
  • pinosylvin metabolism
  • purine degradation
  • rosmarinic acid biosynthesis I
  • rosmarinic acid biosynthesis II
  • salvage pathways of purine nucleosides II (plant)
  • SAM cycle
  • sorbitol biosynthesis
  • superpathway of GA12 biosynthesis
  • superpathway of gibberellin biosynthesis
  • superpathway of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis
  • theobromine biosynthesis I
  • theobromine biosynthesis II (via xanthine)
  • very long chain fatty acid biosynthesis

    Updated plant pathways:

  • biotin biosynthesis II
  • chlorophyllide a biosynthesis
  • gibberellin inactivation
  • resveratrol biosynthesis
  • sorbitol utilization
  • ureide degradation


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 9.6

    Released on December 15, 2005.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 692
    Reactions 5520
    Enzymes 3029
    Chemical Compounds 4817
    Organisms 601
    Citations 8599

    New and Updated Pathways

    81 new pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release. In addition, we significantly revised 36 pathways, by adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information, for a total of 117 updated pathways.

    In microbial/animal metabolism we added 29 new pathways, and significantly enhanced 33 pathways, for a total of 62 pathways.

    Topics that received special attention this quarter include nitrogen metabolism (citrulline, arginine, 4-aminobutyrate, urea, and polyamines), arsenic detoxification, and bacterial degradation of both naturally occurring compounds and xenobiotics. We expanded our coverage of thiol metabolism to include glutathione amide, glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione, and continued to enhance our coverage of amino acid metabolism with various pathways of arginine, cysteine, histidine, glutamate, and proline metabolism.

    In plant metabolism we added 52 new pathways, and enhanced 3 pathways, for a total of 55 pathways.

    New plant primary metabolism pathways include plant variants of amino acid metabolism (glutamate, methionine, and proline), and pathways of fatty acid and UDP-sugar metabolism.

    New microbial/animal pathways:

  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation II
  • arginine degradation IX (D-arginine dehydrogenase pathway)
  • arginine degradation XI
  • arsenate detoxification I
  • arsenate detoxification II
  • arsenate reduction (respiratory)
  • arsenite oxidation (respiratory)
  • biotin biosynthesis III
  • citrulline-nitric oxide cycle
  • creatinine degradation II
  • creatinine degradation III
  • glutathione amide metabolism
  • glutathionylspermidine biosynthesis
  • histidine degradation II
  • histidine degradation III
  • histidine degradation V
  • IAA biosynthesis IV
  • IAA biosynthesis V
  • imidazole-lactate degradation
  • proline biosynthesis V (from arginine)
  • protein citrullination
  • putrescine biosynthesis I
  • putrescine biosynthesis II
  • putrescine biosynthesis III
  • putrescine degradation III
  • putrescine degradation IV
  • putrescine degradation V
  • superpathway of citrulline metabolism
  • urea cycle
  • Updated microbial/animal pathways:

  • 3-phenylpropionate degradation
  • 4-aminobutyrate degradation I
  • 4-hydroxymandelate degradation
  • aerobactin biosynthesis
  • arginine degradation I
  • arginine degradation II
  • arginine degradation III
  • arginine degradation IV
  • arginine degradation V
  • biotin biosynthesis I
  • citrulline degradation
  • creatinine degradation I
  • cysteine biosynthesis II
  • gallate degradation I
  • gallate degradation II
  • glutamate degradation I
  • glutamate degradation II
  • heme biosynthesis II
  • methylgallate degradation
  • nicotinate degradation
  • nopaline degradation
  • octopine degradation
  • proline degradation I
  • putrescine degradation I
  • putrescine degradation II
  • quinate degradation
  • shikimate degradation
  • spermidine biosynthesis
  • spermine biosynthesis
  • toluene degradation II
  • toluene degradation III
  • toluene degradation V
  • trypanothione biosynthesis
  • New plant pathways:

  • 6-methoxymellein biosynthesis
  • aerobic respiration -- electron donor III
  • aloesone biosynthesis
  • benzoxazinoid glucosides biosynthesis
  • β-pyrazole-1-ylalanine biosynthesis
  • canavanine biosynthesis
  • canavanine degradation
  • coniferin metabolism
  • curcumin glucoside biosynthesis
  • cyclopropane and cyclopropene fatty acid biosynthesis
  • DIBOA / DIMBOA biosynthesis
  • DIMBOA-Glc degradation
  • fatty acid biosynthesis - initial steps II
  • GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis I (from GDP-D-mannose)
  • GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis II (from L-fucose)
  • gibberellin inactivation pathway I
  • gibberellin inactivation pathway II (early-13-hydroxylation GAs)
  • glutamate biosynthesis V
  • glutamate degradation X
  • glycerol degradation IV
  • inositol oxidation pathway
  • kievitone biosynthesis
  • lathyrine biosynthesis
  • lipid-dependent phytate biosynthesis I (via Ins(1,4,5)P3)
  • lipid-dependent phytate biosynthesis II (via Ins(1,3,4)P3)
  • lipid-independent phytate biosynthesis
  • lupeol biosynthesis
  • methionine salvage pathway II
  • mimosine biosynthesis
  • monolignol glucosides biosynthesis
  • pentaketide chromone biosynthesis
  • phylloquinone biosynthesis
  • phytate degradation I
  • phytate degradation II
  • proline biosynthesis IV
  • proline degradation III
  • resveratrol biosynthesis
  • sorbitol degradation II
  • superpathway of isoflavonoids (via naringenin)
  • superpathway of pterocarpan biosynthesis (via daidzein)
  • superpathway of pterocarpan biosynthesis (via formononetin)
  • tetrahydroxyxanthone biosynthesis (from 3-hydroxybenzoate)
  • tetrahydroxyxanthone biosynthesis (from benzoate)
  • UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I (from UDP-D-glucuronate)
  • UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis II (from D-galacturonate)
  • UDP-D-xylose biosynthesis
  • UDP-L-arabinose biosynthesis I (from UDP-xylose)
  • UDP-L-arabinose biosynthesis II (from L-arabinose)
  • volatile benzenoid ester biosynthesis
  • volatile cinnamoic ester biosynthesis
  • wighteone and luteone biosynthesis
  • willardiine and isowillardiine biosynthesis
  • Updated plant pathways

  • asparagine biosynthesis II
  • gibberellin biosynthesis
  • sinapate ester biosynthesis

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 9.5

    Released on September 30, 2005.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 621
    Reactions 5428
    Enzymes 2698
    Chemical Compounds 4620
    Organisms 506
    Citations 7369

     

    New and Updated Pathways

    During this quarter we have added 30 new pathways to MetaCyc, and updated the information in 15 additional pathways, for a total of 45 new or modified pathways .

    In microbial metabolism, we focused primarily on the biochemistry of the important thiols glutathione and mycothiol, the transformations of choline, γ-butyrobetaine, glycine betaine and carnitine, and the biosynthesis and degradation of the amino acids methionine and cysteine. In addition, we added pathways covering the degradation of butanediol and the biosynthesis of the enzyme cofactor lipoate. We also rewrote the pathway for the biosynthesis of teichoic acid, an important component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria.

    In plant metabolism , we have added many new pathways involved in the primary metabolism of plants. Main topics were carbohydrate (galactose, mannitol, and sucrose) metabolism, membrane phospholipids (choline I and II) biosynthesis, enzyme cofactors (tetrahydrofolate, formyltetrahydrofolate and biotin) biosynthesis, asparagine degradation, and biosynthesis of the abiotic stress response secondary metabolite, β-alanine betaine. We also added  two biosynthetic pathways of plant alkaloids (berberine and (S)-reticuline), and covered the biosynthesis of β-alanine and pantothenate.

    Update of EC Reactions

    During this quarter we have updated the reactions in MetaCyc with the latest information (as of January 2005) from the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB), by  incorporating supplement 10 (see Enzyme Nomenclature Supplement 10).

    New Cellular Location Ontology

    We have introduced an improved and expanded cellular component ontology that is used both for specifying enzyme cellular locations, and for describing the compartments involved in transport reactions. Our vocabulary of cellular component terms was expanded from 35 to over 150 terms, which are now organized into classes, subclasses and instances. The terms are also related to each other using multiple relationships such as 'component-of' and 'surrounded-by'. For example, the term "inner membrane (sensu Gram-negative bacteria)" is surrounded by the terms "periplasmic space (sensu Gram-negative bacteria)" and "cell wall (sensu Gram-negative bacteria)", and surrounds the terms "cytoplasm" and "cytosol". These new relationships between cellular locations will allow us to introduce more robust querying, and a better graphical display of protein locations. Whenever possible, the new ontology terms have a cross-reference to the Gene Ontology Consortium's (GO) cellular component ontology.

    More Chemical Structures

    We also continued the addition of chemical structures to our compound library. We have added 724 new structures during this period, and now have 4316 compounds with structures.

    Pathway Tools Software Enhancements

    There have been many enhancements to the Pathway Tools software which is used to query MetaCyc. Please see the Pathway Tools Release Notes for more details.

    New microbial pathways:

  • carnitine degradation II
  • carnitine degradation III
  • choline degradation II
  • γ-butyrobetaine degradation
  • γ-glutamyl cycle
  • glutathione redox reactions I
  • glutathione-mediated detoxification
  • glycine betaine biosynthesis II (Gram-positive bacteria)
  • glycine betaine degradation
  • putrescine degradation II (from EcoCyc)
  • Updated microbial pathways:

  • butanediol biosynthesis
  • choline degradation I
  • formaldehyde oxidation III (mycothiol-dependent)
  • glycine betaine biosynthesis I (Gram-negative bacteria)
  • glycine betaine biosynthesis IV (from glycine)
  • glutathione redox reactions II
  • L-cysteine degradation I
  • lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation  (from EcoCyc)
  • methionine biosynthesis III
  • methionine biosynthesis IV
  • methionine degradation I
  • mycothiol biosynthesis
  • mycothiol-mediated detoxification
  • mycothiol oxidation
  • teichoic acid (poly-glycerol) biosynthesis
  • New plant pathways

  • aerobic respiration
  • asparagine degradation II
  • asparagine degradation III
  • β-alanine betaine biosynthesis
  • β-alanine biosynthesis I
  • β-alanine biosynthesis II
  • β-alanine biosynthesis III
  • berberine biosynthesis
  • biotin biosynthesis III
  • choline biosynthesis II
  • choline biosynthesis III
  • formylTHF biosynthesis I
  • galactose degradation III
  • mannitol biosynthesis
  • mannitol degradation II
  • pantothenate biosynthesis II
  • pantothenate biosynthesis III
  • (S)-reticuline biosynthesis
  • sucrose degradation to ethanol and lactate (anaerobic)
  • tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis I

  • Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 9.1

    Released on May 23, 2005.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 601
    Reactions 5273
    Enzymes 2458
    Chemical Compounds 4496
    Organisms 456
    Citations 6566

     

    This last quarter has been very productive at MetaCyc. We have added a total of 62 new pathways, and updated the information in 20 additional pathways!

    In microbial metabolism, we added 20 new pathways. These pathways include expanded coverage of the metabolism of the amino acids lysine, isoleucine and tryptophan, the biosynthesis of the important redox cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a superpathway that ties together the different pathways for aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds found in Pseudomonas, the metabolism of the sugar trehalose, and a few new pathways for the degradation of xenobiotic compounds.

  • aromatic compound degradation (aerobic)
  • benzoate degradation I (aerobic)
  • indole-3-acetate degradation to anthranilate
  • isethionate degradation
  • lysine biosynthesis II
  • lysine biosynthesis III
  • lysine biosynthesis V
  • NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan)
  • NAD salvage pathway I
  • superpathway of isoleucine biosynthesis
  • superpathway of NAD biosynthesis in eukaryotes
  • trehalose biosynthesis IV
  • trehalose biosynthesis V
  • trehalose degradation II (high osmolarity)
  • trehalose degradation III
  • trehalose degradation IV
  • trehalose degradation V
  • tryptophan degradation V (via indole-3-acetamide)
  • tryptophan degradation VI (side chain pathway)
  • tryptophan degradation VII (via tryptamine)
  • In plant metabolism we added 38 new pathways. New plant pathways include plant variants of amino acid metabolism, pathways of fatty acid metabolism, plant hormone biosynthesis (brassinosteroids and cytokinins), and secondary metabolism (isoflavonoids, phenylpropanoids, nitrogen-containing glucosides and terpenoids).

  • ammonia assimilation cycle II
  • biochanin A conjugates interconversion
  • brassinosteroid biosynthesis II
  • capsidiol biosynthesis
  • choline biosynthesis
  • cis-zeatin biosynthesis
  • cytokinins 7-N-glucoside biosynthesis
  • cytokinins 9-N-glucoside biosynthesis
  • cytokinins degradation
  • cytokinins-O-glucoside biosynthesis
  • diterpene phytoalexins precursors biosynthesis
  • dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis II
  • fatty acid oxidation pathway II
  • fatty acid oxidation pathway III
  • flavonol biosynthesis
  • formononetin conjugates interconversion
  • glucosinolate biosynthesis from phenylalanine
  • glutamate degradation IX
  • glyceollin biosynthesis I
  • glyceollin biosynthesis II
  • linamarin biosynthesis
  • linamarin degradation
  • maackiain biosynthesis
  • maackiain conjugates interconversion
  • medicarpin biosynthesis
  • medicarpin conjugates interconversion
  • menthol biosynthesis
  • phaseollin biosynthesis
  • phenylalanine biosynthesis III
  • pisatin biosynthesis
  • plant monoterpene biosynthesis
  • proline biosynthesis III
  • sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins biosynthesis
  • sinapate ester biosynthesis
  • sterol biosynthesis
  • trans-zeatin biosynthesis
  • tyrosine biosynthesis II
  • UDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis
  • In mammalian metabolism we have added a cholesterol biosynthesis pathway from HumanCyc. This pathway describes the biosynthesis of cholesterol from farnesyl diphosphate in an extensive series of 22 reactions.  Combined with the existing mevalonate pathway, which is linked to it, MetaCyc now covers the complete biosynthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-CoA.

  • cholesterol biosynthesis
  • We have also incorporated the following new yeast pathways which were curated by our friends at SGD. Thank you Eurie Hong and Rama Balakrishnan!

  • allantoin degradation II
  • glutamate biosynthesis from glutamine
  • superpathway of NAD biosynthesis in eukaryotes
  • Additional yeast-specific information, provided by SGD, was added to the following existing MetaCyc pathways:

  • glutamate biosynthesis III
  • NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan)
  • NAD salvage pathway I
  • Besides entering new pathways, we have been working on adding commentary and updated enzyme and gene information to existing pathways. The following pathways have been revised to reflect current knowledge and to provide better commentary:

  • 1,8-cineole degradation
  • anthocyanin biosynthesis
  • arginine biosynthesis I
  • arginine biosynthesis II
  • brassinosteroid biosynthesis I
  • dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide biosynthesis
  • glycine degradation II
  • isoflavonoid biosynthesis II
  • lysine biosynthesis I
  • lysine degradation III
  • NAD biosynthesis I
  • NAD salvage II
  • NAD salvage III
  • nylon-6 oligomer degradation
  • sophorosyloxydocosanoate biosynthesis
  • sophorosyloxydocosanoate degradation
  • sucrose degradation II
  • trehalose biosynthesis I
  • trehalose biosynthesis II
  • trehalose degradation I
  • In addition, we continue to expand our chemical compound library and add chemical structures to the compounds. Over 93% of our 4496 compounds have structures.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 9.0

    Released on February 25, 2005.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 547
    Reactions 5046
    Enzymes 2062
    Chemical Compounds 3945
    Organisms 341
    Citations 5468

     

  • A total of 20 new pathways have been added to MetaCyc in this release.

    In bacterial metabolism, we have expanded our coverage of ammonia oxidation and folate metabolism by adding new pathways and improving the annotation of existing ones. We have expanded our coverage of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway to include the interesting variations found in different species of archaebacteria, added a new pathway and more information about nitro-aromatic compounds degradation, and added a pathway for the biosynthesis of myo-inositol.

    In plant metabolism we continue to cover secondary metabolism, with new pathways covering the metabolism of phenylpropanoid acid, the biosynthesis of pterocarpan, and the interconversion of genistein and daidzein conjugates.

    In mammalian metabolism we added four human pathways: A pathway for the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neuro transmitters (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine), a pathway for the degradation of the antidepressant drug bupropion, and two pathways that cover the various routes used in the metabolism of nicotine.

    We have also included three new yeast pathways, which were originally created for YeastCyc (SGD). Two of these pathways cover the biosynthesis of major constituents of the fungal plasma membrane (ergosterol and sphingolipid), and the third one describes a variant pathway for lysine biosynthesis.

    The following pathways have been curated in MetaCyc since the last release:

  • ammonia oxidation III
  • ascorbate glutathione cycle
  • daidzein conjugates interconversion
  • Entner-Doudoroff pathway II (non-phosphorylative)
  • Entner-Doudoroff pathway III (semi-phosphorylative)
  • folate polyglutamylation II
  • folate transformations
  • genistein conjugates interconversion
  • myo-inositol biosynthesis
  • 4-nitrobenzoate degradation
  • phenylpropanoid acid pathway
  • pterocarpan biosynthesis
  • The following new pathway has been imported from the EcoCyc database:

  • folate polyglutamylation I
  •  

    The following new yeast pathways have been provided by the YeastCyc database, ands were curated by Eurie L. Hong. Thank you for this contribution!

  • ergosterol biosynthesis
  • lysine biosynthesis II
  • sphingolipid metabolism
  • The following new human pathways have been imported from the HumanCyc database. We thank Teresa Steininger and Tom Kilduff for curation of the catecholamine biosynthesis pathway:

  • bupropion degradation
  • catecholamine biosynthesis
  • nicotine degradation II
  • nicotine degradation III
  • The following existing pathways have been revised to reflect current knowledge and to provide better commentary:

  • ammonia oxidation I (aerobic)
  • ammonia oxidation II (anaerobic)
  • 4-nitrotoluene degradation
  • phospholipid biosynthesis I
  • tetracholroethene degradation
  • In addition, we have continued adding chemical structures to compounds in our chemical compound library. The number of compounds with structures is now 3592.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 8.6

    Released on November 8, 2004.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 528
    Reactions 4955
    Enzymes 1940
    Chemical Compounds 3551
    Organisms 302
    Citations 5050

    The following new pathways have been added since the last release:

    New bacterial pathways mainly focus on C1 metabolism, specifically the different pathways employed by the methylotrophs, while new plant pathways mostly cover the different pathways employed in the metabolism of the plant hormone indole-3-acetate (IAA), and isoflavonoid biosynthesis.

    Several pathways have been modified. In particular, the plant pathways for anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis, and the bacterial pathways covering glycerol metabolism, formaldehyde assimilation, the degradation of β-alanine, and the degradation of lactose. Modified pathways include:

    In addition, we have added chemical structures to many of the compounds in our chemical compound library. The number of compounds with structures is now 3258.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 8.5

    Released on September 17, 2004.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 513
    Reactions 4924
    Enzymes 1840
    Chemical Compounds 3467
    Organisms 262
    Citations 4662

    In this upgrade we introduced stereochemistry to our compound library. While not all structures have been updated yet, we are continuously adding stereochemistry information to our library of compounds.

    Another change you would notice is the labeling of genes and proteins in graphical diagrams with the initials of the organism's genus and species names. For example, the trpA gene from E. coli would now appear as Ec-trpA, and the tryptophan synthase protein will appear as tryptophan synthase (Ec). This was done to make it easier to tell genes and proteins appart, such as when genes and proteins from multiple organisms are present in a single pathway.

    In addition, we are continuing our on-going curation of new and existing pathways in MetaCyc. Editing existing pathways involves adding descriptive comments, references, and enzymes, and updating the pathway to reflect the latest available information.

    The following new pathways have been added since the last release:

    The following existing pathways were edited extensively:

    We also continue our effort of adding chemical structures for metabolites and other small molecules to MetaCyc. Currently 3074 of our compounds have a full molecular structure.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 8.1

    Released on June 23, 2004.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 506
    Reactions 4912
    Enzymes 1813
    Chemical Compounds 3091
    Organisms 243
    Citations 4455

    We are continuing our on-going curation of new and existing pathways in MetaCyc. Editing existing pathways involves adding descriptive comments, references, and enzymes.

    The following new pathways were curated:

    The following existing pathways were edited extensively:

    Many miscellaneous corrections and updates were applied. For example, the pathway for phenylalanine degradation was divided into two pathways, phenylalanine degradation II (anaerobic), which includes the reactions from phenylalanine to phenylacetate and phenylacetate degradation (anaerobic), which includes the reactions from phenylalanine to benzoyl-CoA. One enzyme in phenylacetate degradation (anaerobic) was newly curated.

    In addition a new superpathway was created, β-ketoadipate pathway, which is comprised of the following two pathways: catechol degradation II (ortho-cleavage pathway) and protocatechuate degradation II (ortho-cleavage pathway).

    Chemical structures for metabolites and other small molecules are being continiously added to MetaCyc. Currently 2737 of our compounds have a full molecular structure.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 8.0

    Released on March 12, 2004.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 496
    Reactions 4873
    Enzymes 1665
    Chemical Compounds 3051
    Organisms 231
    Citations 3771

    We are continuing our on-going curation of new and existing pathways in MetaCyc. Editing existing pathways involves adding descriptive comments, references, and enzymes.

    The following existing pathway was edited extensively:

    Many miscellaneous corrections and updates were applied. For example, the reactions within the superpathway of arginine degradation were reorganized into three separate subpathways:

    Chemical structures for metabolites and other small molecules have been added to MetaCyc.

    The set of enzyme inhibition categories that are represented in MetaCyc has been extended and revised. The new set includes: noncompetitive inhibitors, uncompetitive inhibitors and irreversible inhibitors, in addition to the previously existing categories of competitive inhibitors and allosteric inhibitors. A new category, inhibitors of unknown mechanism replaces two old categories that distinguished between mechanisms that were unknown because they had not been extensively curated versus ones that remained unknown after a substantial literature search, and the new category, other inhibitors, replaces a similar category in previous versions for all inhibitors that were neither competitive nor allosteric.

    Categories of enzyme activation were similarly reexamined, and documentation was updated. Although no new activation categories were added, the two categories for activators whose mechanism was unknown after a minimal versus a substantial literature search were combined into a single category for activators of unknown mechanism.

    See the PTools release notes for additional information on revising the enzyme inhibition and activation categories.

    Enhancements to MetaCyc over the last two years are described in the article, MetaCyc: a multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes, which was recently published in the Nucleic Acids Research 2004 Database issue.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 7.6

    Released on November 4, 2003.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 491
    Reactions 4858
    Enzymes 1618
    Chemical Compounds 3029
    Organisms 222
    Citations 3619

    The following pathways were newly curated in MetaCyc:

    The following pathways were imported from EcoCyc:

    The following pathways, which already existed in MetaCyc, were edited extensively:

    Many other miscellaneous corrections and updates have been applied.

    Chemical structures for metabolites and other small molecules have been added to MetaCyc.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 7.5

    Released on August 29, 2003.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 492
    Reactions 4831
    Enzymes 1571
    Chemical Compounds 2994
    Organisms 214
    Citations 3337

    New pathways have been added to MetaCyc either from recent curation or from importing them from other Pathway/Genome Databases. Existing pathways also have been extensively edited.

    The following pathways were newly curated in MetaCyc:

    • ascorbate biosynthesis
    • cellulose biosynthesis
    • salicylic acid biosynthesis
    • sulfide oxidation II

    The following pathways were imported from EcoCyc:

    • cyclopropane fatty acid (CFA) biosynthesis
    • fructoselysine degradation
    • lipoate biosynthesis and modification
    • lipoate salvage and modification
    • lysine degradation I

    The following pathways were imported from CauloCyc:

    • alanine degradation IV
    • PHB biosynthesis

    The following existing pathways were edited extensively in MetaCyc:

    • coenzyme B biosynthesis
    • thiocyanate degradation I

    MetaCyc display windows now feature full lists of references in addition to links to abstracts that have been supplied previously. The list of references associated with each database object (e.g., pathway, polypeptide, etc.) is located at the bottom of the display window.

    The pathway class hierarchy has been updated and improved to facilitate browsing of metabolic pathways within the BioCyc databases. The pathway hierarchy may be viewed here.

    The Pathway Tools software now supports association of evidence codes with information in BioCyc databases. Evidence codes are used to indicate the type of evidence that supports assertions within these databases. For example, an evidence code can be used to describe whether a pathway was predicted computationally or elucidated experimentally. The presence of a computer icon or a flask icon, respectively, indicate computational versus experimental evidence for an assertion. Click on these icons to obtain more details about the evidence for a given entity. Evidence information will be available in subsequent MetaCyc releases. For more information see the Pathway Tools 7.5 release notes.

    Many other miscellaneous corrections and updates have been applied.

    Chemical structures for metabolites and other small molecules have been added to MetaCyc


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 7.1

    Released on May 20, 2003.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 484
    Reactions 4460
    Enzymes 1520
    Chemical Compounds 2942
    Organisms 201
    Citations 3029

    The following pathways were newly curated in MetaCyc:

    • fructan biosynthesis
    • fructan degradation
    • glycolate degradation II
    • glycosylglyceride desaturation pathway
    • methionine biosynthesis from homoserine II
    • phospholipid desaturation pathway
    • starch degradation
    • thiocyanate degradation II

    The following existing pathways were edited extensively in MetaCyc:

    • triacylglycerol biosynthesis
    • TCA cycle variation IX (TCA cycle in Helicobacter pylori)

    Chemical structures for 27 metabolites and other small molecules have been added to MetaCyc

    Note: The pathway classification hierarchy in MetaCyc is undergoing significant revision. Please be aware that some pathways may be assigned to inappropriate locations in the hierarchy in the version 7.1 release. These assignments will be corrected in the next release.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 7.0

    Released on February 28, 2003.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 477
    Reactions 4429
    Enzymes 1470
    Chemical Compounds 2921
    Organisms 190
    Citations 2974

    • New pathways have been added to MetaCyc either from recent curation or from importing them from other Pathway/Genome Databases. Existing pathways also have been extensively edited.

      The following pathways were newly curated in MetaCyc:

      • anaerobic ethylbenzene degradation
      • auxin biosynthesis
      • lipoxygenase pathway
      • starch biosynthesis
      • sucrose degradation III

      The following pathways were imported from EcoCyc:

      • L-ascorbate degradation
      • ethanol degradation
      • de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides
      • de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides
      • de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotidesribitol degradation
      • glycerol degradation I
      • phenylacetate degradation, aerobic
      • salvage pathways of adenine, hypoxanthine, and their nucleosides
      • salvage pathways of guanine, xanthine, and their nucleosides
      • salvage pathways of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides
      • salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides

      The following pathways were imported from AraCyc:

      • abscisic acid biosynthesis
      • athocyanin biosynthesis
      • brassinosteroid biosynthesis
      • camalexin biosynthesis
      • carotenoid biosynthesis
      • chlorophyll biosynthesis
      • flavonoid biosynthesis
      • flavonoid biosynthesis II
      • gibberellin biosynthesis
      • indolylmethyl glucosinolate biosynthesis
      • jasmonic acid biosynthesis
      • phenylpropanoid pathway
      • polyamine biosynthesis III
      • proanthocyanidin biosynthesis from flavanols

      The following pathways were imported from MtbRvCyc:

      • mycothiol biosynthesis
      • mycothiol oxidation
      • mycothiol-dependent detoxification pathway
      • mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde detoxification

      The following existing pathways were edited extensively in MetaCyc:

      • asparagine biosynthesis II
      • dibenzo-p-dioxin degradation
      • dibenzofuran degradation
      • ethylene biosynthesis from methionine
      • lipase pathway
      • phospholipid biosynthesis II
      • orcinol degradation
      • resorcinol degradation
      • sucrose biosynthesis
      • sulfate assimilation III
      • tetrachloroethene degradation
      • ureide biosynthesis
      • ureide degradation

    • 400 new chemical structures for metabolites and other small molecules have been added to MetaCyc

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 6.5

    Released on August 30, 2002.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 460
    Reactions 4294
    Enzymes 1267
    Chemical Compounds 2404
    Organisms 174
    Citations 2718

    This release contains several new changes:

    • SRI has started a collaboration with TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) at the Carnegie Institution. TAIR is responsible for adding new and editing existing plant-specific pathways to MetaCyc.
    • The following pathways were added since the last release. Please note they include both microbial and plant pathways.
      • anaerobic toluene degradation
      • anaerobic m-xylene degradation
      • anaerobic cyclohexane-1-carboxylate degradation
      • C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle
      • carotenoid biosynthesis
      • cutin biosynthesis
      • epicuticular wax biosynthesis
      • glycosylglyceride biosynthesis
      • lignin biosynthesis
      • nitrate assimilation pathway
      • photorespiration
      • photosynthesis, light reaction
    • In addition to adding new pathways to MetaCyc, we have also edited existing ones. We have added chemical structures, enzymes, reactions, comments and literature citations to existing pathways. The following pathways have been enhanced significantly.
      • glutamate fermentation-the methylaspartate pathway
      • glutamate fermentation-the hydroxyglutarate pathway
      • methionine salvage pathway
      • anaerobic benzoyl-CoA degradation II
    • Genes have been added to MetaCyc for some enzymes.


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 6.0

    Released on February 25, 2002.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 449
    Reactions 4218
    Enzymes 1147
    Chemical Compounds 2339
    Organisms 158
    Citations 2597

    New pathways in this release:

    • dhurrin biosynthesis
    • homoserine degradation I
    • methylglyoxal catabolism
    • mevalonate pathway
    • proline utilization 2
    • purine synthesis 2
    • trehalose biosynthesis 2


    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 5.6

    Released on June 15, 2001.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 445
    Reactions 4218
    Chemical Compounds 2335
    Organisms 158
    Citations 2383
    • Each reaction in MetaCyc that has an EC number now contains WWW links to all proteins in the PIR database that have the same EC number.
    • Each reaction in MetaCyc that has an EC number now contains all enzyme names associated with that EC number by the Enzyme Commission.
    • The following pathways were added to MetaCyc since the last release:
      • (+)-camphor degradation
      • 2-nitropropane degradation
      • 3-methylquinoline degradation
      • 4-aminobutyrate degradation II
      • 4-nitrotoluene catabolism
      • myo-inositol degradation
      • p-cymene degradation
      • acetate fermentation
      • acetyl-CoA assimilation
      • acrylonitrile degradation
      • adamantanone catabolism
      • aldoxime metabolism
      • alkanesulfonate monooxygenase two-component system
      • anaerobic ammonium oxidation
      • anaerobic benzoate degradation
      • APS pathway of sulfate reduction
      • arsonoacetate degradation
      • atrazine catabolism II
      • atrazine catabolism III
      • betaine biosynthesis II
      • betaine biosynthesis III
      • bifidum pathway
      • bisulfite reduction
      • butanediol fermentation
      • caprolactam degradation
      • carbon tetrachloride degradation
      • cobalamin biosynthesis, aerobic pathway
      • coenzyme B biosynthesis
      • coenzyme M biosynthesis
      • cyanide degradation
      • degradation of 3-phenylpropionic acid
      • degradation of urate
      • diacetyl fermentation
      • dibenzo-p-dioxin degradation
      • dibenzofuran degradation
      • dibenzothiophene desulfurization
      • disproportionation of elemental sulfur
      • dissimilation of catechol, meta-cleavage
      • dissimilation of protocatechuate, meta-cleavage
      • ethanol-acetate fermentation
      • Formation of acetate from pyruvate
      • gallate degradation, anaerobic
      • glutamate degradation IX
      • glycolysis 2
      • heterofermentative lactate fermentation
      • homocysteine and cysteine interconversion
      • hydrogen oxidation
      • ketogluconate metabolism
      • L-sorbose metabolism
      • lysine degradation III
      • maleamate pathway
      • methionine degradation 2
      • methionine recycling
      • N-acetylneuraminate catabolism
      • nitrite oxidation
      • orcinol metabolism
      • oxidation of galena
      • oxidation of sulfide or sulfur to sulfite
      • phenylmercury acetate degradation
      • phospholipid biosynthesis II
      • phosphonoacetate metabolism
      • propionate catabolism, 2-methylcitrate cycle
      • purine fermentation
      • reductive tricarboxylic acid pathway
      • resorcinol metabolism
      • rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis
      • RuMP cycle and formaldehyde assimilation
      • serine-isocitrate lyase pathway
      • sorbitol metabolism
      • stachydrine catabolism
      • succinate-propionate fermentation pathway
      • sulfate assimilation 2
      • sulfide oxidation
      • TCA cycle, variation 1
      • TCA cycle, variation 2
      • TCA cycle, variation 3
      • TCA cycle, variation 4
      • TCA cycle, variation 5
      • TCA cycle, variation 6
      • TCA cycle, variation 7
      • TCA cycle, variation 8
      • thiocyanate metabolism
      • threonine biosynthesis from homoserine
      • xylulose-monophosphate cycle

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 5.4

    Released on Sept 1, 2000.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 366
    Reactions 4002
    Chemical Compounds 2180
    Organisms 131
    Citations 604

    The following new pathways are contained in this version of MetaCyc:

    • ureide biosynthesis
    • lipoxygenase pathway I
    • threonine biosynthesis from homoserine
    • nicotine degradation
    • phosphonotase pathway
    • 4-toluenesulfonate degradation pathway
    • sophorosyloxydocosanoate degradation
    • phenol degradation
    • pentachlorophenol degradation pathway
    • tetrachloroethene degradation pathway
    • octane oxidation
    • atrazine catabolism
    • γ-hexachlorocyclohexane degradation pathway
    • cyclohexanol oxidation
    • central benzoyl-CoA pathway
    • aromatic compound degradation
    • 7α-dehydroxylation pathway
    • 4-toluenecarboxylate degradation
    • 2-aminobenzoate degradation
    • 1,4-dichlorobenzene degradation pathway
    • 1,2-dichloroethane degradation pathway
    • sucrose biosynthesis
    • acetylene degradation, anaerobic
    • anaerobic oxidation of phenylalanine
    • ethylene biosynthesis from methionine
    • glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate catabolism
    • pyruvate metabolism
    • pentose phosphate pathway, Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • glucose fermentation
    • carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway
    • interconversion of arginine, ornithine and proline
    • anaerobic glycolysis
    • sophorosyloxydocosanoate biosynthesis
    • trypanothione biosynthesis
    • polyamine biosynthesis, Bacillus subtilis
    • ureide degradation
    • triglyceride biosynthesis
    • phytoalexin biosynthesis
    • galactolipid biosynthesis
    • lipoxygenase pathway II
    • lipases biosynthesis
    • glycerol biosynthesis
    • flavonoid biosynthesis
    • biotin biosynthesis II
    • starch and cellulose biosynthesis
    • phenylalanine biosynthesis IV
    • phenylalanine biosynthesis, Bacillus subtilis
    • asparagine biosynthesis II
    • arginine biosynthesis, Bacillus subtilis
    • ectoine synthesis
    • polythionate oxidation
    • sulfur oxidation
    • sulfur degradation II
    • Fe3+-dependent sulfur oxidation pathway
    • desulfonation of 2-aminobenzenesulfonate, benzenesulfonate and 4-toluenesulfonate
    • 2-aminobenzenesulfonate desulfonation pathway
    • nitroglycerin metabolism
    • denitrification pathway
    • oxidation of ammonia
    • UDP-glucose conversion
    • purine salvage, Halobacterium salinarium
    • purine and pyrimidine metabolism in Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Release Notes for MetaCyc Version 5.0

    Released on June 1, 1999.

    MetaCyc KB Statistics
    Pathways 296
    Reactions 3779
    Chemical Compounds 1949
    Citations 184

    This first release of the MetaCyc Metabolic Encyclopedia is called version 5.0 so that its version numbers are synchronized with the version numbering of EcoCyc and of Pangea's Pathway Tools software.


    More About New Pathways Numbers

    The MetaCyc Statistics by Year table is updated at each release. The discrepancy between the numbers of new pathways reported in the release notes and those computed by the software in the Statistics by Year table results from curation activities such as interconversions of some pre-existing base pathways and superpathways, deletion of pathways, splitting of some pre-existing large pathways into smaller segments and renaming of database objects.